BUDDHA'S BIRTH CANONICAL TEXTS

2012jun8ven_juewei_dissertation002

First of its kind in the world to research about the birth of the Buddha

Acculturation as seen through Buddha's birthday parades in Northern Wei Luoyang : a micro perspective on the making of Buddhism as a world religion by Poh Yee Won (Dharma name: Shi Jue Wei 釋覺瑋).

For a review of Venerable Jue Wei's dissertation see Dissertation Reviews. Dissertation Reviews is an initiative by Stanford professor Thomas Mullaney.

From Acculturation as seen through Buddha's birthday parades in Northern Wei Luoyang : a micro perspective on the making of Buddhism as a world religion by Poh Yee Won (Dharma name: Shi Jue Wei 釋覺瑋). Reproduced by permission of Venerable Jue Wei.

 

From Eastern Han to Northern Wei, there were at least fifty-five (55) canonical accounts of the Buddha’s birth in China. Together with the original 80 BCE Acchariya-abhuta Sutta of the Majjhima Nikāya, Aśvaghoṣa’s Buddhacarita, and third century Lalitavistara, fifty-eight (58) accounts are available for analysis.

The Buddha’s birthday story consists of episodes before, during, and after the birth of the Bodhisattva. From these episodes, there are forty-two (42) events described in varying levels of details. The first section classifies the details accompanying the Bodhisattva’s birth into eight (8) episodes (which appear in roughly the same order across the texts), while the second section lists the actual accounts related to each event. In the first section, the number appearing in parenthesis behind each event indicates the number of texts describing this event. Each event is hyperlinked to the relevant section of the canonical texts.

Table 13 lists the canonical texts from which the preceding episodes and events were derived.

  1. Canonical Texts containing Buddha’s birth stories
Date Title Dynasty and Author/Translator
80 BCE Acchariya-abhuta Sutta, Majjhima Nikāya
1st-2nd century Buddhacarita Aśvaghoṣa
3rd century Lalitavistara
25-220 《大方便佛報恩經》 後漢
197 《修行本起經》 後漢竺大力共康孟詳
223-253 《太子瑞應本起經》 吳月支支謙
223-253 《惟日雜難經《太子瑞應本起經》 吳月支支謙
223-253 《太子瑞應本起經》Arthavargīyasūtra 吳月支支謙
252 《佛說無量壽經》Sukhāvatīvyūhasūtra 曹魏天竺康僧鎧Saghavarman
265-313 《等集衆德三昧經》Sarvapuyasamuccayasamādhisūtra 西晉月氏竺法護Dharmaraka
266-313 《般泥洹後灌臘經》 西晉月氏竺法護
270 《佛說文殊師利現寶藏經》Ratnakāraṇḍa(ka)(vyūha)sūtra 西晉月氏竺法
280-312 《異出菩薩本起經》Abhinikramaa(sūtra) 西晉居士聶道眞
285 《慧上菩薩問大善權經》 西晉月氏國竺法護
290-306 《佛說灌洗佛形像經》 西晉沙門法炬
290-307 《佛般泥洹經》Mahāparinirvāasūtra 西晉河內沙門白法祖
297 《漸備一切智德經》Daśabhūmikasūtra 西晉月支竺法護
306 《阿育王傳》Aśokarājāvadāna 西晉安息三藏安法欽
308 《普曜經》Lalitavistara(sūtra) 西晉竺法護
317-420 《般泥洹經》Mahāparinirvāasūtra 東晉
350-431 《薩婆多毘尼毘婆沙》Sarvāstivādavinayavibhāā
350-431 《大乘悲分陁利經》Karuāpuṇḍarīkasūtra
365-384 《中陰經》Antarābhava(sūtra) 後秦涼州沙門竺佛念
376 《菩薩瓔珞經》 姚秦涼州沙門竺佛念
383 《鞞婆沙論》Vibhāā(śāstra) 符秦罽賓三藏僧伽跋澄Saghabhūti
385 《僧伽羅剎所集經》 符秦罽賓三藏僧伽跋澄等
388-407 《佛說摩訶剎頭經》 西秦沙門聖堅
392 《佛說十二遊經》 東晉西域沙門迦留陁伽
397-398 《中阿含經》Madhyamāgama(sūtra)未曾有法品Acchariya-abhuta Sutta 東晉罽賓三藏瞿曇僧伽提婆Gautama Saghadeva
397-439 《優婆夷淨行法門經》Upasikābrahmacārya-
dharmaparyāyasūtra
北涼
402-406 《大智度論》Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra 後秦龜茲國三藏鳩摩羅什Kumārajīva:
402-407 《坐禪三昧經》
402-412 《佛說首楞嚴三昧經》Śuragamasamādhisūtra 後秦龜茲國三藏鳩摩羅什
402-412 《集一切福德三昧經》Sarvapuyasamuccayasamādhisūtra 後秦龜茲國三藏鳩摩羅什
402-412 《十住毘婆沙論》 後秦龜茲國三藏鳩摩羅什
405 《高僧法顯傳》 東晉沙門法顯
413 《長阿含經》Dīrghāgama(sūtra)遊行經Mahāparinibbānasutta 後秦佛陁耶舍共竺佛念Buddhayaśas
414-421 《菩薩地持經》Bodhisattvabhūmi 北涼中印度三藏曇無讖Dharmakema
414-421 《大般涅槃經》Mahāparinirvāasūtra 北涼中印度三藏曇無讖
414-426 《佛所行讚》Buddhacarita 北涼天竺三藏曇無讖
414-426 《大方等大集經》(Mahāvaipulyamahā)sannipātasūtra 北涼中印度三藏曇無讖
417-418 《佛說大般泥洹經》Mahāparinirvāasūtra 東晉平陽沙門法顯
418 《大方廣佛華嚴經》(Buddha)avatasakasūtra 東晉天竺三藏佛馱跋陀羅Buddhabhadra
424-452 《大般涅槃經》Mahāparinirvāasūtra 宋沙門慧嚴等
431 《菩薩善戒經》Bodhisattvabhūmi 宋罽賓三藏求那跋摩Guabhadra
435-443 《過去現在因果經》 宋天竺三藏求那跋陁羅
435-443 《大方廣寶篋經》Ratnakāraṇḍa(ka)(vyūha)sūtra 宋罽賓三藏求那跋摩
435-443 《雜阿含經》Sayuktāgamasūtra 阿育王傳,阿育王經Divyâvadāna 宋罽賓三藏求那跋摩
437-439 《阿毘曇毘婆沙論》(Abhidharma)vibhāā(śāstra) 北涼天竺沙門浮陁跋摩共道泰等Buddhavarman
445 《賢愚經》Damamūka(nidānasūtra) 元魏涼州沙門慧覺等
455 《治禪病秘要法》 宋居士沮渠京聲
472 《付法藏因緣傳》 元魏西域三藏吉迦夜共曇曜
488 《善見律毘婆沙》Samantapāsādikā 簫齊外國三藏僧伽跋陁羅Saghabhadra
502-518 《弘明集》 梁釋僧祐
502-557 《釋迦譜》 梁沙門僧祐
502-557 《釋迦氏譜》 梁沙門僧祐
512 《阿育王經》Aśokarājasūtra 梁扶南三藏僧伽婆羅
516 《經律異相》 梁沙門僧旻寶唱等

 

Below are extracts of accounts from canonical texts representing the episodes and events in the Buddha’s birth stories.

Episode #1: Prior to the Descent of the Bodhisattva from Tuita Heaven

Past lives leading to the last rebirth:

1st – 2nd century, Buddhacarita
“he who was born full of wisdom, not foolish, as if his mind had been purified by countless aeons of contemplation
1

3rd century, Lalitavistara
“There was not a being living who could drink that vigorous essence and remain at ease, except the next coming Bodhisattva who had acquired the fullness of all the stages of Bodhisattva perfection. What were the works through the influence of which the essence remained in the Bodhisattva? For having for long nights practised the duties of a Bodhisattva; for having given medicine to the sick; for having fulfilled desires of longing people ; for protecting those who sought his shelter; for daily offering to Tathagatas, to Chaityas, to Śrāvakas, to Saṇghas, and to his parents, the first share of flowers, fruits and tasteful substances, before partaking of any of them himself. These were the works in recognition of which Mahābrahmā brought to him the nectariferous essence.”2

25-220 《大方便佛報恩經》
「為欲利益一切眾生故,菩薩摩訶薩以大方便,處兜率天,成就壽命,有三事勝:一者,壽勝;二者,色勝;三者,名稱勝。初下之時,放大光明,遍照十方

3

270 《佛說文殊師利現寶藏經》
「沙門瞿曇有審諦德。所以者何?生大豪家種姓具足,父母苗裔清淨帝王轉輪聖種,一相有百福功德。」4

290-306 《佛說灌洗佛形像經》
「吾本從阿僧祇劫時。身為白衣累劫積德。每生自剋展轉五道。不貪財寶棄身施與無所愛惜。自致為王太子。」5

223-253 《太子瑞應本起經》
菩薩於九十一劫,修道德,學佛意,通十地行,在一生補處。後生第四兜術天上,為諸天師,功成志就,神智無量。期運之至,當下作佛

308 《普曜經》
「前世積功德,  長夜來善本; 布施得真正,  故今致奉敬。
 尊本無數劫,  惠施愛男女; 以斯施果報,  雨天諸花香。
 害身肉稱之,  用哀愍鳥故; 由此布施果,  餓鬼蒙食醬。
 尊本無數劫,  護戒無所犯; 由禁獲果報,  消盡惡道難。
 本無數億劫,  志道行忍辱; 忍行致此果,  慈心愍天人。
 本無數億劫,  上進無怯劣; 以是精進果,  身好如須彌。
 本無數億劫,  禪思消眾塵; 以是一心果,  不樂眾塵欲。
 本無數億劫,  行智斷貪欲; 以是智慧果,  光明最清淨。
 被鎧善伏塵,  普愍念眾生; 仁德度彼岸,  禮清淨安住。
 光耀悉普照,  皆除眾塵冥; 為三千目導,  禮最勝現道。
 曉了神通飛,  顯示學究竟; 化度以種類,  稽首善船師。
 皆學清淨辭,  示現沒終始; 未曾捨俗法,  於俗無所著。
 其見求博聞,  弘利甚無限; 況復聽受法,  得信愛樂者。」6

388-407《佛說摩訶剎頭經》(亦名灌佛形像經)
「佛身作白衣時。累功積德每生自剋。展轉五道不貪財寶出身施與。自致為王太子。」7

414-426 《佛所行讚》
「修德無量劫,  自知生不死,
 安諦不傾動,  明顯妙端嚴。

8

502-518 《弘明集》
「蓋聞佛化之為狀也。積累道德。數千億載不可紀記。」9

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「因果經云。釋迦如來未成佛時。為大菩薩名曰善慧。功行滿已位登補處。生兜率天名曰聖善。為諸天主說補處行。亦於十方現身說法。期運將至當下作佛。」10

Choice of time:

3rd century, Lalitavistara
“when the manifest world is in peace, when men know what is birth, what is decay, what is disease and what is death”11

3rd century, Lalitavistara
“on the 15th of the waxing moon, when the moon is full, and in conjunction with the constellation of Pushya”12

3rd century, Lalitavistara
“ascertained the time of his birth, observed the eight pre-ordained signs in the palace of the king Śuddhodhana”13

308 《普曜經》
「爾時王宮先現八瑞

14

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「便以春末夏初(中國以十二月十六日為春初。四月十六日為夏。三時各四月)樹始花茂。沸宿應下化為白象。諸根寂定現從日光。」15

Choice of continent and country:

3rd century, Lalitavistara
“does not take birth in an outlying continent (or the continent of savages) … born in Jambudvīpa … does not take birth in an outlying country (or the country of savages) where men are born blind, dumb, uncivilised, or ignorant of the distinction between good and bad speech. It follows that Bodhisattvas are born in the middle country.”16

223-253 《太子瑞應本起經》
「迦維羅衛者,三千日月萬二千天地之中央也。 佛之威神,至尊至重,不可生邊地,地為傾邪,故處其中。周化十方,往古諸佛興,皆出於此。」17

280-312 《異出菩薩本起經》
「迦維羅衛國者,天地之中央也;佛生者,不可邊土餘國,地為之傾側。

18

285《慧上菩薩問大善權經》
「又,族姓子!菩薩發意之頃,於兜術天逮正真覺、轉于法輪,閻浮利人不能自致昇兜術天聽受經法,菩薩心念,天上諸天能下至此。是故正士,於閻浮利而現成佛,是為菩薩善權方便。」19

350-431 《大乘悲分陀利經》
「爾時我當從兜率天下,為度眾生熟善根故」20

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「觀五事已,即自思惟:『今諸眾生,皆是我初發心以來所成熟者,堪能受於清淨妙法,於此三千大千世界,此閻浮提迦毘羅斾兜國最為處中」21

502-557 《釋迦譜》
「其國種姓有六十德。一生補處乃應降神。 今此釋種熾盛。五穀豐熟快樂無極。人民滋茂殖眾德本。迦維羅衛。眾人和穆上下相承。一切諸釋渴仰一乘。」22

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「普曜經云。菩薩住兜率天有六十六億諸天。共議言今菩薩將降當生何國。父母真正宗族和穆。威德雄猛志性弘雅。各言諸國皆有。便問菩薩何國降神。菩薩答言。其國種姓有六十種德 … 今此釋種熾盛五穀豐熟。人民滋茂相承德本。」23

Choice of household:

Buddhacarita
“Śuddhodhana … The very best of kings with his train ever near him, -- intent on liberality yet devoid of pride; a sovereign, yet with an ever equal eye thrown on all, -- of gentle nature and yet with wide-reaching majesty … he illuminated his people on every side, showing them the paths which they were to follow … Duty, wealth, and pleasure under his guidance assumed mutually each other's object, but not the outward dress … actual pre-eminence was brought about by his numberless councillors of exalted wisdom … queen, named Māyā as if free from all deceit … a chief queen in the united assembly of all queens … Like a mother to her subjects, intent on their welfare”24

Lalitavistara
“not born in a low family … born in one of two families, either in that of a Brāhmaṇa, or that of a Kshatriya. When the Brāhmaṇs are the most respected on the earth Bodhisattvas are born in Brāhmaṇ families, but when Kshatriyas are the most respected, they take their birth in Kshatriya families. Since now … the Kshatriyas are in the ascendant, the Bodhisattva will be born in a Kshatriya family.”25

Lalitavistara
“family … sixty-four qualities … lady … thirty-two noble qualities”26

223-253 《太子瑞應本起經》
「父王名白淨,聰叡仁賢;夫人曰妙,節義溫良。

27

280-312 《異出菩薩本起經》
「迦維羅衛國王,為人仁賢,即下入王夫人腹中」28

308 《普曜經》
「菩薩報曰:『其國種姓有六十德 … 迦維羅衛眾人和順,上下相承心念反復,將護情態積三帑藏;捨眾殃舋棄眾邪見,一切諸釋渴仰一乘;奉敬尊長,居士大臣眷屬和穆;色像第一,其白淨王性行仁賢,夫人曰妙,姿性溫良,仁慈博愛,容色難倫」29

350-431 《大乘悲分陀利經》
「於最妙轉輪王種第一夫人腹中受胎而住」30

402-406 《大智度論》
「菩薩先已了知是父、是母。是父、是母能長養我身,我依父母生身得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。」31

414-426 《佛所行讚》
「甘蔗之苗裔,  釋迦無勝王,
 淨財德純備,  故名曰淨飯,
 群生樂瞻仰,  猶如初生月。
 王如天帝釋,  夫人猶舍脂,
 執志安如地,  心淨若蓮花,
 假譬名摩耶,  其實無倫比。」32

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「諸族種姓釋迦第一甘蔗苗裔聖王之後:觀白淨王過去因緣,夫妻真正堪為父母;又觀摩耶夫人,壽命脩短,懷抱太子,滿足十月,太子便生,生七日已,其母命終」33

435-443 《大方廣寶篋經》
「是沙門瞿曇所生成就。父母清淨轉輪王種。以百福相莊嚴其身。」34

502-557 《釋迦譜》
「其白淨王性行仁賢。夫人妙姿性溫貞良。猶天玉女。護身口意。強如金剛。前五百世為菩薩母。應往降神受彼胞胎。」35

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「父性仁賢母懷貞良。前五百世為菩薩母。應往降神處彼胞胎 … 又知其母壽命足滿。十月生已。七日便即命終。」36

516 《經律異相》
「究竟菩薩。在兜率天。詰天共議。當使菩薩現生何氏。種英天子問曰。一生補處降神何種。答曰。種姓有六十德者。我當降之(文多不載)唯有釋家久植德本。迦維羅衛人。大小和穆上下相承。國富民樂渴仰一乘。且白淨王性行仁賢。夫人姓瞿曇氏。溫良忠善護身口意。已五百世為菩薩母。」37

Choice of form to enter mother’s womb:

Lalitavistara
“instruct Brāhmans who read the Mantras and the Vedas and the Śāstras, the Bodhisattva should enter the womb of his mother in a form befitting of that purpose … noble elephant of great size, having six tusks. He should be covered with golden net-works, and pleasing in appearance; he should have well-blooded veins, manifest and well developed beauty, and be endowed with all auspicious marks”38

308 《普曜經》
「象形第一。六牙白象頭首微妙,威神巍巍形像姝好,梵典所載其為然矣。緣是顯示三十二相。所以者何?世有三獸:一、兔,二、馬,三、白象。兔之渡水趣自渡耳;馬雖差猛,猶不知水之深淺也;白象之渡盡其源底。聲聞緣覺其猶兔馬,雖度生死不達法本;菩薩大乘譬若白象,解暢三界十二緣起,了之本無,救護一切莫不蒙濟。」39

392 《佛說十二遊經》
「伊羅慢龍王,以為制乘,名白象,其毛羽踰於白雪山之白,象有三十三頭,頭有七牙,一牙上有七池,池上有七憂鉢蓮華,一華上有一玉女,菩薩與八萬四千天子,乘白象寶車來下。

40

502-518 《弘明集》
「假形於白淨王夫人。晝寢夢乘白象身有六牙欣然悅之。遂感而孕。」41

502-557 《釋迦譜》
「於時菩薩問諸天子。以何形貌降神母胎。或言儒童形。或曰釋梵形。或言日月王形。或日金翅鳥形。彼有梵天名曰強威。從仙道來。報諸天言。象形第一。六牙白象威神巍巍。梵典所載。所以者何。世有三獸。一兔二馬三白象。兔之渡水趣自渡耳。馬雖善猛。猶不知水之深淺。白象之渡盡其源底。聲聞緣覺其猶兔馬。雖渡生死不達法本。菩薩大乘譬如白象。解暢三界十二緣起。了之本無。救護一切莫不蒙濟。」42

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「普曜經云。菩薩問天。以何形貌降神母胎。梵天強威白言。梵典所尊象形第一。何以故。三獸渡水。兔馬未知深淺。用譬二乘不達法本。象步盡底。以譬大乘解暢三界。」43

Farewell:

Lalitavistara
“These are, venerable sirs, the hundred and eight initiatory lights of the religion which were for certain disclosed to the godly congregation by the Bodhisattva at the time of his descent … On that occasion, Bhikshus, the Bodhisattva addressed these highly exhilarating Gathas to the godly assembly :—- 1. When the noble being and leader descends from the excellent mansion of Tushita, casting aside all errors, he invites all the Devas … 21. In order that the Bodhi religion may be attained by him who is in quest of that nectar, and the same may be showered (on earth), adore him with purified mind, so that you may listen to the exposition of the great religion … Then the Bodhisattva appointed Maitreya Bodhisattva to the office of Vice-gerent, and taking off from his own head his silken turban, placed it on that of Maitreya. He then said, ‘While I am gone, thou shalt instruct these good people in the absolutely perfect knowledge.’ ”44

308 《普曜經》
「菩薩大士臨降神時,為諸天子講說此法。說是法門品時,八萬四千天子發無上正真道心,三十萬二千天子宿殖德本,尋時逮成無從生忍,三十六載諸天子等遠塵離垢諸法眼淨,兜術諸天咸皆欣然,皆散天華積至于膝。」45

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「是時兜率諸天,見菩薩身,已有五相,又復覩外五希有事,皆悉聚集,到菩薩所,頭面禮足白言:『尊者!我等今日見此諸相,舉身震動,不能自安,唯願為我釋此因緣。』菩薩即便答諸天言:『善男子!當知諸行皆悉無常,我今不久,捨此天宮,生閻浮提。』」46

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「菩薩爾時為欲廣利諸天。故現五衰相(文如諸天退相)又現五瑞一光照大千。二地十八相動。三魔宮隱蔽。四三光不明。五八部震駭。于時諸天見是兩相。具問菩薩。菩薩爾時答言。當捨此天生閻浮提。諸天聞已咸慕久住。菩薩答曰。生無不死愛合必離。諸行無常寂滅為樂。我生釋種出家成佛。當為眾生建大法幢。竭煩惱海淨八正道。設大法會請諸天人。汝等亦當同飡法食。諸天聞已咸喜願生。」47

Episode #2: The Descent from Tuṣita Heaven and during the Carriage of the Bodhisattva

The Descent:

Acchariya-abhuta Sutta, Majjhima Nikāya
“Mindful and fully aware the Bodhisatta passed away from the Tusita heaven and descended into his mother’s womb”48

Buddhacarita
“Then falling from the host of beings in the Tusita heaven, and illuminating the three worlds, the most excellent of Bodhisattvas suddenly entered at a thought into her womb … Assuming the form of a huge elephant white like Himālaya, armed with six tusks, with his face perfumed with flowing ichor, he entered the womb of the queen of king Śuddhodana, to destroy the evils of the world.”49

Lalitavistara
“At such a time the Bodhisattva, the eldest in the three regions, and adored of creation, seeing that the proper season had arrived, that the moon was on the 15th day of its age and in perfect fulness, renounced the mansion of Tushita, and, calling to mind the tradition, entered, in the form of an elephant, of a yellowish white colour, having six tusks, crimson veins, golden teeth, and perfect members, the womb of his mother who had been purified by the rite of Poshadha.”50

197 《修行本起經》
「於是能仁菩薩,化乘白象,來就母胎 …用四月八日 … 來詣我上」

223-253 《太子瑞應本起經》
「菩薩初下,化乘白象,冠日之精。 因母晝寢,而示夢焉,從右脇入。」

223-253 《太子瑞應本起經》
「菩薩初下,化乘白象,冠日之精。 因母晝寢,而示夢焉,從右脇入。」

252 《佛說無量壽經》
「處兜率天弘宣正法。捨彼天宮降神母胎。」51

285 《慧上菩薩問大善權經》
「又,族姓子!菩薩發意,能從兜術忽然沒已,不由胞胎,一時之頃成最正覺。傍人有疑此所從來為是天耶?揵陀羅變化所為乎?若懷狐疑不聽受法,是故菩薩現處胞胎,是為菩薩善權方便。」52

297 《漸備一切智德經》
「輒得出生在兜術天上,從天來下,入母腹中」53

385 《僧伽羅剎所集經》
「是時菩薩不懷恐怖,從兜術天降神」54

397-398 《中阿含未曾有法品未曾有法經》
「世尊在兜瑟哆天,於彼命終,知入母胎」

397-439 《優婆夷淨行法門經》
「所謂菩薩捨兜率天身,憶念分明而處母胎,是為一未曾有奇特之法。

55

402-406 《大智度論》
「是淨心念父母,相續入胎,是名正慧入母胎。

56

414-421 《菩薩地持經》
「正知入胎。住胎出胎。」57

414-421 《大般涅槃經》
「或閻浮提示入母胎令其父母生我子想。而我此身畢竟不從婬欲和合而得生也。我已久從無量劫來離於婬欲。我今此身即是法身隨順世間示現入胎 … 見於菩薩從兜率下化乘白象降神母胎。

58

414-426 《佛所行讚》
「於彼象天后,  降神而處胎。

417-418 《佛說大般泥洹經》
「復於閻浮提五欲之中現受胎生,其諸父母謂我為子」59

424-452 《大般涅槃經》
「或閻浮提示入母胎。令其父母生我子想。而我此身畢竟不從愛欲和合而得生也。我已久從無量劫來離於愛欲。我今此身即是法身。隨順世間示現入胎 … 見於菩薩。從兜率下化乘白象降神母胎。父名淨飯母曰摩耶。」60

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「爾時菩薩觀降胎時至,即乘六牙白象,發兜率宮 … 以四月八日明星出時,降神母胎。于時摩耶夫人,於眠寤之際,見菩薩乘六牙白象騰虛而來,從右脇入,影現於外如處琉璃」

472 《付法藏因緣傳》
「菩薩從兜率天化乘白象降神母胎。父名白淨母曰摩耶。」61

502-557 《釋迦譜》
「菩薩過冬盛寒春末。夏初樹始花茂。不寒不暑適在時宜。沸宿應下。菩薩從兜率天化作白象。口有六牙。諸根寂定光色巍巍。現從日光降神母胎趣於右脇。所以處右。所行不左 … 瑞應本起云。菩薩初下化乘白象。冠日之精。修行本起云。夫人夢空中有乘白象光明照天下。詣無憂樹。」

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「沸宿應下化為白象。諸根寂定現從日光。所行不左降母右脇。瑞應修行二經皆云。化乘六牙白象。冠日之精發兜率宮。諸天翼從滿虛空中。作樂散花大光普照。以四月八日明星出時降神母胎。夫人眠夢見人乘象入右脇內影現於外如在瑠璃。身安心樂。」

516 《經律異相》卷4:「王后晏寢。菩薩化乘白象。冠日之精。入于胎中。」62

Miracles accompanying the descent:

Acchariya-abhuta Sutta, Majjhima Nikāya
“a great immeasurable light surpassing the splendour of the gods appeared in the world … this ten-thousandfold world system shook and quaked and trembled”63

Lalitavistara
On the night when the Bodhisattva entered the womb of his mother, a stalk arose from the water below the earth, and, penetrating through sixty-eight hundreds of thousands of yojanas of the great earth, bore a lotus high up in the region of Brahmā. None, however, saw that lotus, except ten hundred thousand Brāhmaṇa choristers (of that region). In that lotus had been deposited the essence of the three thousand of regions, their radiance and their sap. Mahābrahmā placed the essence in a vase made of lapis lazuli, and brought it before the presence of the Bodhisattva. Bodhisattva accepted it, and drank it out of favour to Mahābrahmā. There was not a being: living; who could drink that vigorous essence and remain at ease, except the next coming Bodhisattva who had acquired the fullness of all the stages of Bodhisattva perfection.”64

25-220 《大方便佛報恩經》
「初下之時,放大光明,遍照十方

65

290-307 《佛般泥洹經》
「佛為菩薩時,從第四兜術天來下,入母腹中,時,天地為大動。

308 《普曜經》
「於時菩薩坐於寶淨交露棚閣,處妙后右脇所坐寶淨棚閣,殊妙栴檀而香熏之;其香遍勳三千世界,魏魏奇異強若金剛,軟如天衣,香氣芬馥徹於十方。

350-413 《大乘悲分陀利經》
「我當爾時放淨光明遍照娑訶佛土,上至阿迦尼吒天下至金輪際妙光周遍。爾時眾生生娑訶佛剎者,或在地獄、或為畜生、或為餓鬼、或生天上、或生人中,在色界、無色界、想無想、非想非非想處,令彼一切見斯光明覺觸其身,令彼一切厭生死苦樂求涅槃,乃至住滅結心,是初種涅槃道種。」66

385 《僧伽羅剎所集經》
「若菩薩從兜術天降神,地為大動 … 若菩薩從兜術天降神時,有大光明照世間界,是智慧光明相初瑞應,諸幽冥之處皆悉見明,亦是智慧之相。」」67

397-398 《中阿含未曾有法品未曾有法經》
「是時震動一切天地,以大妙光普照世間,乃至幽隱諸闇冥處無有障蔽,謂此日月有大如意足,有大威德,有大福祐,有大威神,光所不照者,彼盡蒙耀,彼眾生者因此妙光各各生知,有奇特眾生生」

397-439 《優婆夷淨行法門經》
「菩薩捨天身已處胎之時,自然光明照於世間,世界中間幽冥之處,日月星光所不能照,悉皆大明,其中眾生各得相見,咸作是言:『此中云何忽生眾生,一切世間梵、魔、沙門、婆羅門,所有光明無能及者!』又復三千大千世界六種震動,諸須彌山震動不停,是為二未曾有奇特之法。

68

413 《長阿含經遊行經》
「若始菩薩從兜率天降神母胎,專念不亂,地為大動」

Mahāparinibbānna Sutta, Digha Nīkāya
“Again, when a Bodhisatta descends from the Tusita Heaven, mindful and clearly aware into his mother’s womb, the the earth shudders and shakes and violently quakes.”69

414-421 《菩薩地持經》
「生母胎時。奇特光明充滿世界。」70

431 《菩薩善戒經》
「初下之時放大光明遍照十方。

71

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「無量諸天,作諸伎樂,燒眾名香,散天妙花;隨從菩薩,滿虛空中,放大光明,普照十方 … 菩薩降胎之時,三千大千世界十八相動,清涼香風起於四方,諸抱疾者皆悉除愈,貪欲瞋癡亦皆休息。

502-557 《釋迦譜》
「大花嚴經云。菩薩從兜率陀天降神下時。此林中有十種瑞相。」

516 《經律異相》卷4:「入于胎中。身心安樂猶如深禪。詣無憂樹下。遣使啟王。時無憂林有十種瑞。一忽然廣博。二土石變為金剛。三寶樹行列。四沈香莊嚴。五華鬘充滿。六眾寶流出。七池生芙蓉。八天龍夜叉合掌而住。九天女恭敬。十一切諸佛放光普照。王大歡喜。后身輕軟。不想三毒。諸有疾者手摩必愈。」72

Pre-birth divine protection:

Acchariya-abhuta Sutta, Majjhima Nikāya
“four young deities came to guard him at the four quarters so that no humans or non-humans or anyone at all could harm the Bodhisattva or his mother”73

Buddhacarita
The guardians of the world hastened from heaven to mount watch over the world's one true ruler; thus the moonbeams, though they shine everywhere, are especially bright on Mount Kailāsa”74

Lalitavistara
Yakshas, Rakshas, Kumbhāṇdas, Guhyakas, Devas and Dānavas with Indra at their head, who are now the guardians of the noble being, will ere long attain salvation (moksha).”75

385 《僧伽羅剎所集經》
「於彼多起道意已,有此智慧,諸天子常衛護,兜術諸天遞來宿衛」76

397-439 《優婆夷淨行法門經》
「菩薩處胎,有四天子執持威儀,四方侍衛守護菩薩及菩薩母,不令世間人、非人等之所惱害,是為三未曾有奇特之法。

77

Perfect faculties of the Bodhisattva:

Acchariya-abhuta Sutta, Majjhima Nikāya
“She saw the Bodhisatta within her womb with all his limbs, lacking no faculty”78

Lalitavistara
“Nor is the Bodhisattva born as a foetus made of consolidated bubbles and fleshy fibres. No, he appears with all his body and its members fully developed and marked with all auspicious signs, and in a seated position.”79

25-220 《大方便佛報恩經》
「自知始入母胞胎時、住時、出時」80

397-398 《中阿含未曾有法品未曾有法經》
「我聞世尊覆藏住母胎,不為血所污,亦不為精及諸不淨所污,若世尊覆藏住母胎,不為血所污,亦不為精及諸不淨所污者,我受持是世尊未曾有法。

81

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「本起云。菩薩處胎夫人修行六度。天食自然。三千世界常光明朗。病者除滅三毒停息。菩薩自身支節相好皆悉具足。行住坐臥無有妨礙。人乘象入右脇內影現於外如在瑠璃。身安心樂。」

Receiving congratulations:

223-253 《太子瑞應本起經》
於是群臣諸小國王,聞大王夫人有娠,皆來朝賀。菩薩於胎中,見外人拜,如蒙羅縠而視,陰以手攘之。攘之者意,不欲擾人也。

280-312 《異出菩薩本起經》
「左右群臣,及隣國請可屬迦維羅衛國者,聞王夫人有娠,皆來賀大王,前為夫人作禮。

82

Mother’s pregnancy:

Acchariya-abhuta Sutta, Majjhima Nikāya
“she became intrinsically virtuous, refraining from killing living beings, from taking what is not given, from misconduct in sensual pleasures, from false speech, and from wines, liquors and intoxicants … no kind of affliction arose in her; she was blissful and free from bodily fatigue”83

Buddhacarita
relieved the people around her from the sufferings of poverty by raining showers of gifts”84

Lalitavistara
“Nor did she feel any of the pains incident to the conditions of pregnancy. Nor was she oppressed by the heat of desires, envy and delusion. Nor did she think of the affairs of lust, malice or cruelty.”85

223-253 《太子瑞應本起經》
「自夫人懷姙,天為獻飲食,自然日至,夫人得而享之,不知所從來,不復饗王厨,以為苦且辛。

280-312 《異出菩薩本起經》
「夫人懷抱太子時,天上諸神,日持天上飯食,來置夫人前,夫人不知飯食所從來?不能復食王家飯食,王家飯食,苦且辛。

308 《普曜經》
「 唯覺己身輕便柔軟安隱無橫,無婬怒癡、不想三毒,亦無寒熱及諸飢渴,不污聖體及餘手指,無有不可。亦不遇惡色聲香味細滑之法,不見惡夢亦無惡露。

385 《僧伽羅剎所集經》
「自從菩薩降母胎中,夫人之身未曾有穢,菩薩戒行極為清淨,心無傷害之意,施行立誓審諦至誠」86

397-439 《優婆夷淨行法門經》卷23 瑞應品〉:「菩薩處胎,能令其母自然持戒,不殺、盜、婬、妄語、飲酒,是為四未曾有奇特之法。菩薩處胎,其母清淨無有欲心,外人見之亦不生染,是為五未曾有奇特之法。菩薩處胎,常令其母大得利養,色、香、味、觸自然而至,是為六未曾有奇特之法。菩薩處胎,母常安樂,無諸疾病、飢渴、寒熱、疲極之患,菩薩亦然。菩薩胎中母常見之,譬如真摩尼毘琉羅寶,八楞清淨,內外明徹,一切具足,以五色縷而以貫之,明眼之人執在手中,見珠八楞及五色縷,青、黃、赤、白了了分明。菩薩處胎亦復如是,母見其身、頭、目、手、足一切身分,悉皆無有障礙,是為七未曾有奇特之法。」87

414-426 《佛所行讚》
「母悉離憂患,  不生幻偽心,
 厭惡彼諠俗,  樂處空閑林。

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「自從菩薩處胎以來,摩耶夫人,日更修行六波羅蜜;天獻飲食,自然而至,不復樂於人間之味」

502-557 《釋迦譜》
「時天帝釋及化自在天。各上天宮。花香妓樂琦異之饌供養妙后。」

Episode #3: Expecting Delivery

Full term of carriage:

Acchariya-abhuta Sutta, Majjhima Nikāya
“The Bodhisatta’s mother gave birth to him after carrying him in her womb for exactly ten months”88

Buddhacarita
Then one day by the king's permission the queen, having a great longing in her mind …”89

Lalitavistara
“ten months having elapsed, and the time for the birth of the Bodhisattva having arrived”90

197 《修行本起經》
「十月已滿太子身成,到四月七日

223-253 《太子瑞應本起經》
「到四月八日夜明星出時」

280-312 《異出菩薩本起經》
「 太子以四月八日夜半時生」

285 《慧上菩薩問大善權經》
何故菩薩在母胞胎,具足十月無見而生?人儻起念在母之懷,日月不足諸根不具。現滿十月,是為菩薩善權方便。」91

290-306 《佛說灌洗佛形像經》
「以四月八日夜半明星出時」

290-307 《佛般泥洹經》
「經曰:佛以四月八日生」

308 《普曜經》
「 滿十月已,菩薩臨產之時,先現瑞應三十有二」

317-420 《般泥洹經》
「佛從四月八日生 …以佛星出時,此時百草華英,樹木繁盛」

350-431 《薩婆多毘尼毘婆沙》
「以二月八日弗星出時生。

350-431 《大乘悲分陀利經》
「我當受一切法決定三昧,受一意法門三昧心,十月住母腹中。又我得佛,眾生厭離生死,我所應度者,令彼眾生於十月中見我在胎結加趺坐,心入三昧如摩尼現。滿十月生時

92

388-407 《佛說摩訶剎頭經》(亦名灌佛形像經)
「以四月八日夜半明星出時 … 佛告天下人民。十方諸佛皆用四月八日夜半時生 … 佛言。所以用四月八日者何。春夏之際殃罪悉畢。萬物普生毒氣未行。不寒不熱時氣和適。」

392 《佛說十二遊經》
「佛以四月八日生」

397-439 《優婆夷淨行法門經》
「凡人受胎或九月日,或至十月而便產生;菩薩不爾,要滿十月然後乃生,是為九未曾有奇特之法。

93

402-406 《大智度論》
「是菩薩滿十月,正慧不失念。

94

414-421 《大般涅槃經》
「處胎滿足十月而生。

95

414-426 《佛所行讚》
「時四月八日,  清和氣調適,
 齋戒修淨德,  菩薩右脇生,
 大悲救世間,  不令母苦惱。

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「菩薩處胎,垂滿十月,身諸支節及以相好,皆悉具足,亦使其母諸根寂定,樂處園林,不喜憒鬧。

437-439 《阿毘曇毘婆沙論》
「生有多種。或說。入母胎時名生。或說。出母胎時名生。或說。時五陰名生。或說。不相應行陰少分名生。或說。非想非非想處四陰名生。何處說入母胎時名生者。如經說。諸家生彼彼處生出現。出母胎時名生者。」96

472 《付法藏因緣傳》
「處胎滿足十月而生。

97

502-518 《弘明集》
「以四月八日。從母右脇而生。」

502-557 《釋迦譜》
「菩薩在胎十月。

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「普曜經云。在胎十月。開化三十六載天人。使立三乘聖道 … 普曜經云。時王思惟懷妊將滿。作此念時夫人白王。欲往園觀即勅莊嚴 … 文多不載(今以四月八日入胎。亦以此月八日生。則十二月在胎也)

516 《經律異相》
「既滿十月臨產之時。

98

Omens prior to birth:

Lalitavistara
“thirty-two omens became manifest in the garden attached to the palace of king S'uddhodana”99

308 《普曜經》
「 滿十月已,菩薩臨產之時,先現瑞應三十有二」

502-557 《釋迦譜》
「菩薩臨產先現瑞應三十有二 … 凡三十二瑞(文多不載瑞應及修行並同)疆場左右嘆未曾有。

516 《經律異相》
「既滿十月臨產之時。有三十二瑞。一後園林木自然生果。二陸地出青蓮大如車輪。三枯樹生華。四七寶車至。五地中寶藏自然涌出。六名香好華遍布遠近。七雪山五百師子羅住城門。八五百白象皆住殿前。九細雨澤香。十百味飲食給諸飢渴(文多不載與諸本起同)。」100

Mother’s escorts:

Buddhacarita
Then one day by the king's permission the queen, having a great longing in her mind, went with the inmates of the gynaeceum into the garden Lumbinī.”101

Lalitavistara
““vehicles harnessed to elephants and horses … twenty thousand elephants of the colour of the cloud, like the blue mountain, housed in golden networks, decorated with gold and jewels, with bells hanging on their side—noble six-tusked elephants … twenty thousand horses of the colour of snow or silver, with noble manes of the colour of munja fibre, covered with golden networks set with little bells,—swift as the wind, and worthy the vehicle of royalty … twenty thousand men, veterans in warfare … guard the noble Maya and her suite”102

308 《普曜經》
「 王勅嚴駕及諸侍從,雲母寶車婇女圍繞,出行遊觀隣鞞樹下;車馬人乘皆共同色,光耀人目;二百白象前後導從,眾寶明珠垂絡諸象;象皆六牙,悉象中王,盡以紫金雜廁象身,微風吹之嗷嗷相和,懸諸繒幡皆勇戰鬪;時世和安無有爭心,眷屬圍繞宿衛王后,隣鞞樹下。

414-426 《佛所行讚》
「王知其志願,  而生奇特想,
 勅內外眷屬,  俱詣彼園林。

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「又勅嚴辦十萬七寶車輦,一一車輦,雕玩殊絕;又復勅外,嚴辦四軍,象兵、馬兵、車兵、步兵;又復選取後宮婇女,容顏端正,不老不少,氣性調和,聰慧明了,其數凡有八萬四千,以用給侍摩耶夫人。又復擇取八萬四千端正童女,著妙瓔珞嚴身之具,齎持香花,先往住彼藍毘尼園。王又勅諸群臣百官,夫人去者,皆悉侍從。於是夫人,即昇寶輿,與諸官屬并及婇女,前後導從,往藍毘尼園。」

502-557 《釋迦譜》
「婇女圍繞出遊憐鞞樹下。

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「十萬寶輦四兵外備。婇女姿妙八萬四千。給侍夫人。又擇童女八萬四千。齎持香花先往彼園。又勅臣婦皆令侍從。」

Decorated Lumbini garden (delivery room):

Lalitavistara
“Decorate the Lumbinī garden, which in its wealth of flowers is like the Nandana garden of the Sūras, with jewels and gold in profusion;—with precious stuffs of various kinds set off all the trees”103

285 《慧上菩薩問大善權經》
「何故菩薩生於樹園不在中宮?菩薩長夜習在閑居,志樂寂寞行平等淨,欲令天、龍、鬼神、揵沓和、阿須倫、迦留羅、真陀羅、摩睺羅、人與非人,皆捨室宇寂然供養,此諸華香普流天下,使迦維羅衛國中人民歡喜悅預不為放逸,是故菩薩在於樹下寂寞處生,不在宮舘,是為菩薩善權方便。

104

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「即勅於外,令淨掃灑藍毘尼園,更使栽植諸妙花果;流泉浴池,悉令清潔;欄楯階陛,皆以七寶而為莊嚴。翡翠鴛鴦,鸞鳳凰鷖,異類眾鳥,鳴集其中;懸繒幡蓋,散花燒香,作諸伎樂,猶如帝釋歡喜之園。」

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「藍毘尼園花果泉池。欄楯階陛七寶莊飾。鸞鳳眾鳥翔集其中。幡蓋樂伎香花備滿。」

Cheerful send-off:

Lalitavistara
“put on soft and pleasant dresses of diverse colours in choice fashions, and redolent with delightful essences and aromatics … pearl necklaces pendant on their chests, and let all appear fully ornamented. Let lutes, monochords, and mridangas,—let vinas, flutes, and mukundas,—let clarions by hundreds of thousands—raise their charming music, and so entertain all that even gods by hearing the sweet sounds may long for their goddesses”105

308 《普曜經》
「又見王后處一好車,男女大小色像皆同不異,各御車乘,法無殊特,欲使王后不聞惡音。象馬乘步若干種兵,各各嚴飾住於門外。聞大洪音始出門時,百千聲響皆稱萬歲。」106

Royal chariot:

Lalitavistara
“women of various ranks drag that car, causing no diversion … a hundred thousand tinkling bells and a thousand chauris; it had a jewelled throne, and around it jewelled trees, rich in foliage and flowers. In that chariot geese, herons and peacocks raised a pleasant carol; parasols, standards, flags and pennons were uplifted; little bells suspended from networks tinkled around”107

308 《普曜經》
「又見王后處一好車,男女大小色像皆同不異,各御車乘,法無殊特,欲使王后不聞惡音。象馬乘步若干種兵,各各嚴飾住於門外。聞大洪音始出門時,百千聲響皆稱萬歲。其車嚴飾行止安詳,天師子座作四寶樹,枝葉華實皆悉茂盛,鳧鴈孔雀暢悲和音。竪幢幡蓋七寶交露車,時諸天人住於虛空,將御此車亦暢和音。」

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「於是夫人,即昇寶輿,與諸官屬并及婇女,前後導從,往藍毘尼園。

108

502-557 《釋迦譜》
「王后臨產思入園觀。嚴雲母寶車。」

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「夫人爾時即昇寶輿導從往林。

109

Divine escorts:

Lalitavistara
“Heavenly damsels came to the sky to behold it … showered, too, choice flowers after whirling them in the air … The four guardians of the quarters are carrying that chariot. Indra, lord of the gods, is purifying the road, and Brahma is marching in front to restrain the wicked. Immortals by hundreds of thousands are, with joined hands, saluting her. The king, in delight, is beholding the procession.”110

308 《普曜經》
「 其四天王挽王后車,其天帝釋淨治道路;又梵天王列在前導,百千天人頭面稽首」

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「爾時復有天龍八部,亦皆隨從,充滿虛空。

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「人爾時即昇寶輿導從往林。滿空八部亦同隨往。大華嚴云。林中現瑞凡有十種。乃至十方諸佛臍中放光。普照此林現佛方來。」

Divine procession to Lumbinī:

Lalitavistara
“guarded by eighty-four thousand well-appointed horse-cars, eighty-four thousand well-appointed elephant-cars, eighty-four thousand brigades of heroic, veteran, sturdy soldiers clad in impenetrable mail and armour … preceded by sixty thousand S'akya maidens … guarded by forty thousand S'akyas, old, young and middle-aged, all born agnates to the king S'uddhodana … surrounded by sixty thousand musicians of king S'uddhodana's inner apartments, all engaged in singing and music, playing on clarions and other instruments … surrounded by eighty-four thousand Deva damsels, by the same number each of Naga damsels, of Gandharva damsels, of Kinnara damsels, and of Asura damsels, … decorated with a profusion of ornaments, and engaged in singing, music, or pleasant conversation.”111

308 《普曜經》
「天帝釋梵四王皆共翼從,諸天散華速行案行 … 威光輝曜其香芬熏,清涼甘美音聲柔軟,若干奇寶瓔珞其身,莊嚴要妙見者皆歡;諸音樂器笳簫鼓吹,若干種品相和而鳴,諸天玉女聞柔和應」

502-557 《釋迦譜》
「王后坐師子床。六反震動三千國土四天王挽王后車。梵天前導。適至樹下。」

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「普曜云。王后臨產乘雲母車。遊憐鞞樹坐師子座。六反震動三千國土。四天挽車梵王前導。」

Episode #4: Bodhisattva’s Delivery

Mother’s Delivery:

Acchariya-abhuta Sutta, Majjhima Nikāya
“The Bodhisatta’s mother gave birth to him standing up”112

Buddhacarita
“As the queen supported herself by a bough which hung laden with a weight of flowers, the Bodhisattva suddenly came forth, cleaving open her womb … from the side of the queen, who was purified by her vow, her son was born for the welfare of the world, without pain and without illness”113

Lalitavistara
“the waved-leaved fig tree. It was the noblest of many noble trees … it was bent …This Plaksha tree did the lady approach … Now, Mayadevi, extending her right hand, resplendent as the lightning on the sky, held a branch of the Plaksha tree, and, looking playfully towards the sky, stood there yawning. At that time sixty hundreds of thousands of Apsarases, along with Kamavachara Devas, engaged themselves in her service. Thus did the Bodhisattva remain thriving in the womb of his mother. And when ten full months had passed, forth from the right side of his mother, he issued … his mother’s flank became unbroken and scarless; as it was before so it became after”114

197 《修行本起經》
「夫人出遊,過流民樹下,眾花開化、明星出時,夫人攀樹枝,便從右脇生墮地」

223-253 《太子瑞應本起經》
「到四月八日夜明星出時,化從右脇生墮地」

252 《佛說無量壽經》
「從右脇生」115

280-312 《異出菩薩本起經》
「從母右脇生墮地」

285 《慧上菩薩問大善權經》
「何故菩薩從右脇生?若不如是眾人有疑,則謂菩薩因由遘精而處胎藏,不為化育。眾必懷結猶預難決,是故示現令人開解。菩薩雖從右脇而生,母無瘡瘠出入之患,往古尊聖因時如然,所行無違,是為菩薩善權方便「何故菩薩母攀樹枝,然後而生?設不爾者,眾人當謂:『皇后雖生菩薩必有惱患,若如凡庶而無殊別。』欲為黎示現安隱,母適攀樹枝,志性柔和,則菩薩誕育,是為菩薩善權方便

116

306 《阿育王傳》
「示王摩耶所攀樹枝生菩薩處。尊者舉手語菴羅樹神言。汝本見佛。今可現身以示於王。使王得見增長信心。時此樹神即現其身。尊者掘多語於王言。此樹神者。見佛生時。王即合掌。向於樹神說偈問言。
 汝見相好身  莊嚴生時不 為見修廣目  蓮花葉眼不
 汝聞於牛王  說柔軟音不
樹神即便以偈答言。
 我見真金色  兩足最勝尊 舉足行七步  聞彼世尊說」117

308 《普曜經》
「 眷屬圍繞宿衛王后,隣鞞樹下 … 爾時菩薩從右脇生,忽然見身住寶蓮華 … 菩薩生時其母安隱,無有瘡瘢亦無痛痒,平復如故。

350-413 《大乘悲分陀利經》
「我當從母右脇而出」118

405 《高僧法顯傳》
「從舍衛城東南行十二由延到一邑名那毘伽 … 城東五十里有王園。園名論民。夫人入池洗浴出池。北岸二十步舉手攀樹枝東向生太子。」119

413 《長阿含經遊行經》
「菩薩始出母胎,從右脇生」

Mahāparinibbānna Sutta, Digha Nīkāya
“Again, when a Bodhisatta emerges from his mother’s womb”120

414-421 《大般涅槃經》
「此閻浮提林微尼園。示現從母摩耶而生。」121

414-426 《佛所行讚》
「時四月八日,  清和氣調適,
 齋戒修淨德,  菩薩右脇生,
 大悲救世間,  不令母苦惱。

424-452 《大般涅槃經》
「此閻浮提林微尼園。示現從母摩耶而生。」122

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「爾時夫人,既入園已,諸根寂靜;十月滿足,於二月八日日初出時,夫人見彼園中,有一大樹,名曰無憂,花色香鮮,枝葉分布,極為茂盛;即舉右手,欲牽摘之;菩薩漸漸從右脇出。

437-439 《阿毘曇毘婆沙論》
「生有多種。或說。入母胎時名生。或說。出母胎時名生。或說。時五陰名生。或說。不相應行陰少分名生。或說。非想非非想處四陰名生。何處說入母胎時名生者。如經說。諸家生彼彼處生出現。出母胎時名生者。」123

445《賢愚經》
「佛生迦毘羅衛淨飯王家,右脅而生」124

455 《治禪病祕要法》
「日種王太子  甘蔗之苗裔 星光月外甥  摩耶夫人子」125

502-557 《釋迦譜》
「適至樹下。樹即屈枝自歸王后。諸天百千咸共散花。爾時菩薩從右脇生。」

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「樹為屈枝。[普曜]經云。十月滿足。於四月八日日初出時。於無憂樹下花葉茂盛。便舉右手欲牽摘之。菩薩漸漸從右脇出。佛所行讚云。古昔王生或從股生。手生頂生腋生。我從右脇而生。大善權經。菩薩欲不由胞胎一頓成佛。為防人疑恐是變化。不受法故現受胎生。經中前後所現皆滅疑生信。」

516 《經律異相》
「四月八日夜明星出時。后思園觀遊憐鞞樹下。三千國土六反震動。沸宿隕落樹即屈枝。母即攀執。諸天散華。從右脇生。」126

Untainted Delivery:

Acchariya-abhuta Sutta, Majjhima Nikāya
“When the Bodhisatta came forth from his mother’s womb, first gods received him, then human beings … he did not touch the earth.”127

Buddhacarita
“As soon as he was born the thousand-eyed (Indra) well-pleased took him gently, bright like a golden pillar”128

Lalitavistara
“there were present before him S'akra, the lord of the Devas, and Brahma, lord of the earth, and they respectfully and intelligently and in full memory received the Bodhisattva under cover of a beautiful piece of silk cloth. Brahma, lord of the earth, and his suite of Brahmakayika Devaputras plucked out the tower in which the mother of Bodhisattva had dwelt during her pregnancy, and carried it away to Brahmaloka for the purpose of erecting a chaitya on it, and worshipping it. No Bodhisattva should be received by any human being, therefore was the Bodhisattva first received by the Devas … Immediately after his birth the Bodhisattva alighted on the earth; and at that time, piercing through the earth, a noble lotus appeared for the newly-born Mohasattva Bodhisattva.”129

197 《修行本起經》
「釋梵摩持天衣裹之」

285 《慧上菩薩問大善權經》卷1:「何故菩薩安和澹泊忽然而生,其身清淨無有垢穢?菩薩至尊三界之上,雖處胎中如日炤水,淨無所著不增不減,故現脇生不與凡同,是為菩薩善權方便。

130

308 《普曜經》
「 爾時菩薩從右脇生,忽然見身住寶蓮華」

397-398 《中阿含未曾有法品未曾有法經》
「世尊初生之時,有四天子手執極細衣,住於母前,令母歡喜」

397-439 《優婆夷淨行法門經》
「菩薩出胎天人承接,後為世人之所捧持,是為十一奇特之法。

131

402-406 《大智度論》
「梵天王持寶蓋、釋提桓因以天寶衣承接」132

414-421 《大般涅槃經》
「生未至地帝釋捧接。

133

424-452 《大般涅槃經》
「迦毘羅城處胎滿足十月而生。

134

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「于時樹下,亦生七寶七莖蓮花,大如車輪;菩薩即便墮蓮花上,無扶侍者 … 時四天王,即以天繒接太子身,置寶机上;釋提桓因手執寶蓋,大梵天王又持白拂,侍立左右」

472 《付法藏因緣傳》
「生未至地帝釋奉接。

135

502-557 《釋迦譜》
「母適攀樹枝菩薩誕生。是為菩薩善權方便。忽然現身住寶蓮花 … 瑞應本起云。梵釋下侍。四天王接置金机上 … 釋梵天衣裹之。

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「經云于時樹下。生七莖七寶蓮花。大如車輪。菩薩墮蓮花上 … 經云。時四天王以天繒接侍。置寶几上。帝釋執蓋。梵王執白拂。左右侍立。」

516 《經律異相》
「四王接上金案。

136

Pure birth:

Acchariya-abhuta Sutta, Majjhima Nikāya
“When the Bodhisatta came forth from his mother’s womb, he came forth unsullied, unsmeared by water or humors or blood or any kind of impurity, clean, and unsullied.”137

Lalitavistara
“undefiled by any uterine dirt”138

285 《慧上菩薩問大善權經》
「又,族姓子!無得興念:『菩薩處胞。』勿懷斯意,菩薩大士不由精胎。所以者何?有三昧名曰無垢,菩薩大士以斯正受而自莊嚴。兜術天人謂菩薩沒而無動搖,不覩菩薩遊於胞胎。現處母腹而從脇生,棄國捐家尋坐佛樹,示勤苦行,普現悉遍無所不變,無有勞擾而無染污。所以者何?菩薩之瑞所化清淨,是為菩薩善權方便 …何故菩薩適生斯須,帝釋即下前稽首奉,不使餘天?其釋無始立茲本願:『菩薩若生,當以淨意而奉受之。』亦為菩薩本德之徵,是為菩薩善權方便。」

139

397-398 《中阿含未曾有法品未曾有法經》
「世尊覆藏出母胎,不為血所污,亦不為精及諸不淨所污」

397-439 《優婆夷淨行法門經》
「菩薩初生無有水血及以胎膜諸不淨物,其身清淨如摩尼珠,以加私國[*]而以裹之,不相染著。何以故?彼此淨故。菩薩初生亦復如是,清淨無染如摩尼珠,其母鮮淨亦如彼[*],是為十三奇特之法。」140

417-418 《佛說大般泥洹經》
「而我過去無數劫來愛欲永盡,無染污身無穢食身,清淨法身諸生已斷,以方便智隨順世間,於閻浮提生現為童子」141

Episode #5: First Contact

Divine bath prior to taking seven steps:

Acchariya-abhuta Sutta, Majjhima Nikāya
“When the Bodhisatta came forth from his mother’s womb, two jets of water appeared to pour from the sky, one cool and one warm, for bathing the Bodhisatta and his mother.”142

Buddhacarita
“two pure streams of water fell down from heaven upon his head with piles of Mandāra flowers”143

Lalitavistara
“The two Naga kings, Nanda and Upananda, remaining in semi-developed form under the sky, bathed the Bodhisattva by pouring two streams of water, one hot and the other cold … Śakra, Brahma, the guardians of regions, and the Devaputras by hundreds of thousands, who had come there, bathed the new-born Bodhisattva with scented water and well-blown flowers, and sprinkled the same about him. Two chamaras, and a jewelled umbrella became manifest in the sky. ”144

397-439 《優婆夷淨行法門經》
「菩薩生時,於虛空中自然而有二飛流水:一、冷,二、暖,浴菩薩身,是為十四奇特之法。

145

402-406 《大智度論》
「阿那婆蹋多龍王、婆伽多龍王以妙香湯澡浴 … 是時於佛母前,有清淨好池,以浴菩薩;梵王執蓋,帝釋洗身,二龍吐水。

146

414-421 《大般涅槃經》
「難陀龍王及婆難陀吐水而浴。

147

424-452 《大般涅槃經》
「難陀龍王及婆難陀吐水而浴。

148

472 《付法藏因緣傳》
「難陀龍王及跋難陀吐水而浴。

149

Wise baby:

Buddhacarita
“he who was born full of wisdom, not foolish, as if his mind had been purified by countless aeons of contemplation”150

Lalitavistara
“with full memory, knowing everything … beheld the four quarters … with the sight of a lion—with the sight of a Mahapurusha. At that time further birth being precluded by the maturation of the fruit of his former good works, the Bodhisattva obtained a transcendental sight … He perceived, too, the mind and habits of all created beings. Perceiving them, he looked to ascertain whether there was any person equal to him in good conduct, in meditation, in thorough knowledge, and in the exercise of all virtuous actions; but nowhere in the three thousand great thousand regions did he see any.”151

431 《菩薩善戒經》
「了了自知始入母胞胎時住時出時。

152

Radiant baby:

Buddhacarita
“when he was gazed at, though of such surpassing brightness, he attracted all eyes like the moon. With the radiant splendour of his limbs he extinguished like the sun the splendour of the lamps”153

223-253 《太子瑞應本起經》
「身黃金色,有三十二相,光明徹照,上至二十八天,下至十八地獄,極佛境界莫不大明。

414-426 《佛所行讚》
「漸漸從胎出,  光明普照耀,
 如從虛空墮,  不由於生門。

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「身黃金色有三十二相,放大光明,普照三千大千世界」

445 《賢愚經》
「身黃金色,三十二相、八十種好,應王金輪典四天下。

154

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「經云。太子身黃金色。三十二相光照大千。」

Seven steps:

Acchariya-abhuta Sutta, Majjhima Nikāya
“He took seven steps facing north, and with a white parasol held over him, he surveyed each quarter and uttered the words of the Leader of the Herd: ‘I am the highest in the world. This is my last birth; now there is no renewal of being for me.’”155

Buddhacarita
“with the lotus-sign in high relief, far-striding, set down with a stamp, -- seven such firm footsteps did he then take ... `I am born for supreme knowledge, for the welfare of the world, thus this is my last birth,' … gazing at the four quarters”156

Lalitavistara
“dauntless and fearless as a lion, and unagitated, calling to mind and contemplating on the eight objects of reflection, and knowing the mind and habits of all beings , advanced seven steps towards the east, saying, “I shall be the easternmost (foremost) in all virtuous actions, the source of all goodness.” While he advanced, the beautiful, white, wide-extended umbrella and the auspicious chamaras, advanced along with him in the sky, and where he set his foot there sprouted forth lotuses … seven steps towards the south, saying, “I shall be worthy of reward (dakshiṇīya) from gods and men.” … the west .. seven steps, and, stopping like a lion at the seventh step … “I am the eldest on the earth; I am the noblest on the earth; this is my western (or last) birth; I shall bring to an end all birth, decay, death and pain.” ' … seven steps towards the north …"I shall be subsequenceless (without a north) among all creation." … seven steps downwards … "I shall destroy Mara and his army; I shall shower on hell the rain of the cloud of the great religion, and blow out the fire of the nether regions, so that they may be restored to happiness." … seven steps upwards, … "I shall be the observed of all who live above."”157

25-220 《大方便佛報恩經》
「於十方面行七步時,無人扶持,作如是言:『我今此身是最後邊。』」158

197 《修行本起經》
「行七步,舉手而言:『天上天下,唯我為尊。三界皆苦,吾當安之。』」

223-253 《太子瑞應本起經》
「即行七步,舉右手住而言:『天上天下,唯我為尊。三界皆苦,何可樂者?』」

223-253 《惟日雜難經》
「菩薩生墮地行七步止住舉右手言。我為天上天下師。止不復行。」159

223-253 《佛說義足經》
「是太子生時,地大動現大光明,悉照一切生,便行七步,無所抱猗,便左右視出聲言:『三界甚苦,何可樂者?』」160

252 《佛說無量壽經》
「從右脇生現行七步。光明顯曜。普照十方無量佛土。六種振動。舉聲自稱。吾當於世為無上尊。」161

265-313 《等集眾德三昧經》:
「適生墮地則行七步。

162

270 《佛說文殊師利現寶藏經》
「墮地而行至于七步,舉手而言:「我為天上、天下最尊,當為眾庶斷生老病死。」」163

280-312 《異出菩薩本起經》
「行七步之中,舉足高四寸,足不蹈地,即復舉右手言:「天上天下,尊無過我者!」」

285 《慧上菩薩問大善權經》
「何故菩薩適見受已,行地七步亦不八步?是為正士吉祥之應,應七覺意覺不覺者也。自古迄于今,未有能現行七步者,是為菩薩善權方便。何故菩薩已行七步,舉手而言:『吾於世尊,天上天下為最第一,當盡究竟生老死原!』釋、梵、梵志及諸天子,彼時眾會莫不遍集,設不現斯當各自尊,則懷憍慢,便不復欲禮侍菩薩。菩薩愍念外道梵志、諸天之眾長夜不安,必墜惡趣而受苦痛。是故菩薩舉聲自讚:『吾於世尊,天上天下第一,權慧超異獨步無侶,當究竟盡生老死根。』以此音告三千大千世界。其諸天子未有來者,應聲便至。爾時異學梵志及諸天子,皆共稽首敬禮讚音,叉手歸誠,是為菩薩善權方便。」164

290-306 《佛說灌洗佛形像經》
「生墮地行七步。舉右手而言。天上天下唯吾為尊。當為天人作無上師。」

297 《漸備一切智德經》
「從母腹出,隨行七步,舉手自讚,三界最尊」165

306 《《阿育王傳》
「佛之上眼始生之日行七步處。遍觀四方舉手唱言。此是我之最後生也。末後胞胎。王聞是語。五體投地。恭敬作禮合掌涕泣。而作偈言。
 修勝福吉利  得見牟尼尊 復見佛生處  得聞所說語
 我無勝福業  不得見世尊 復不見初生  亦不聞所說」166

308 《普曜經》
「墮地行七步顯揚梵音,無常訓教:『我當救度天上天下為天人尊,斷生死苦,三界無上,使一切眾無為常安。』」

350-413 《大乘悲分陀利經》
「令我適生即行七步」167

365-384 《中陰經》
「當其如來初舉一足行七步天下大動。十方諸佛皆來扶助。」168

376 《菩薩瓔珞經》
「菩薩初生時。墮地行七步欲趣金机。次舉左足內自思惟。」169

383《鞞婆沙論》
「彼生時行七步。

170

385 《僧伽羅剎所集經》
「若菩薩初生時舉足行七步,此七覺意之瑞應。是時菩薩觀察四方時,此是四賢聖諦之瑞應。是時菩薩大笑時,現度人之瑞應。」171

388-407《佛說摩訶剎頭經》(亦名灌佛形像經)
「生墮地行七步。舉右手而言。天上天下我當為人民作師。」

397-398 《中阿含未曾有法品未曾有法經》
「世尊初生之時,即行七步,不恐不怖,亦不畏懼,觀察諸方」

397-439 《優婆夷淨行法門經》卷23 瑞應品〉:「菩薩生已北行七步,爾時空中自然白傘覆菩薩身,行七步已遍觀十方,發師子吼,唱如是言:『一切世間,唯我為上,天、人中尊,我為最大,從此生盡,無復後生!』是為十五奇特之法 …行七步已顧視十方 .. 作師子吼。

172

402-406 《大智度論》
「復次,菩薩初生時,放大光明,普遍十方,行至七步,四顧觀察,作師子吼而說偈言:
 「我生胎分盡,  是最末後身; 我已得解脫,  當復度眾生。


復次,佛初生時,墮地行七步,口自發言,言竟便默,如諸嬰孩,不行不語 …生時地六種動,行至七步,安詳如象王,觀視四方,作師子吼:我是末後身,當度一切眾生! … 又生時,不須扶持而行七步,足跡之處,皆有蓮華,而發是言:「我是度一切眾生老、病、死者!」 … 菩薩初生時,行七步,口自說言:「我所以生者,為度眾生故。」言已,默然。」173

402-407 《坐禪三昧經》
「初生行七步發口演要言。

174

402-412 《佛說首楞嚴三昧經》
「或於四天下。欲從兜率下生世間。或現入胎。或現處胎。或現欲生。或現生已而行七步。舉手自稱天上天下唯我為尊。」175

402-412 《集一切福德三昧經》
「菩薩摩訶薩當其生已,行七步時,此界大地從廣六十八千由旬;菩薩生已,當下足時,便當却沒深百千由旬;還舉足時,復當踊出百千由旬;以佛持故,令是世界不動無壞、眾生無惱。最後身菩薩始初生時,則便具有如是力。」176

402-412 《十住毘婆沙論》
「佛能普於十方無量無邊世界現生受身墮地行七步。

177

405 《高僧法顯傳》
「太子墮地行七步。

178

414-421 《菩薩地持經》
「生墮地時。即行七步舉手而言。吾當於世為無上尊。」179

414-421 《大般涅槃經》
「生已即能東行七步唱如是言。我於人天阿修羅中最尊最上。父母人天見已驚喜生希有心。而諸人等謂是嬰兒。而我此身無量劫來久離是法。如來身者即是法身。非是肉血筋脈骨髓之所成立。隨順世間眾生法故示為嬰兒。南行七步示現欲為無量眾生作上福田。西行七步示現生盡永斷老死是最後身。北行七步示現已度諸有生死。東行七步示為眾生而作導首。四維七步示現斷滅種種煩惱四魔種性。成於如來應正遍知。上行七步示現不為不淨之物之所染污猶如虛空。下行七步示現法雨滅地獄火。令彼眾生受安隱樂。毀禁戒者示作霜雹 … 如彼菩薩初出生時無人扶持。即行七步放大光明遍觀十方 …摩尼跋陀大鬼神王執持寶蓋隨後侍立地神化花以承其足。四方各行滿足七步 … 若見菩薩初生之時。於十方面各行七步 …或復示現菩薩初生行至七步

180

414-426 《佛所行讚》
「正真心不亂,  安庠行七步,
 足下安平趾,  炳徹猶七星。
 獸王師子步,  觀察於四方,
 通達真實義,  堪能如是說。
 此生為佛生,  則為後邊生,
 我唯此一生,  當度於一切。」

414-426 《大方等大集經》
「既出生已舉手唱言。我三界中最尊最勝 … 又於生時一一方面各行七步。

181

417-418 《佛說大般泥洹經》
「北行七步而自稱言:『我於天人阿修羅為無上尊。』父母歡喜舉聲歎曰:『我生童子墮地行七步,世未曾有。』時諸眾生皆言奇特,而我未曾為童子也,無數劫來離嬰兒行,清淨法身非為骨肉穢食所長,法身示現而為童子隨順世間,南行七步現為一切無上福田;西行七步現究竟斷生老病死,於一切眾生為最後邊;東行七步現為一切眾生前導;向於四維行七步者,現斷眾邪煩惱魔行,自在天子皆悉降伏,當成應供等正覺道;上方躡虛行七步者,現如虛空無能染者;又向下方行七步者,現滅一切泥犁盛火,興大法雲霔大法雨安樂眾生,雨大法雹破諸惡戒」182

418 《大方廣佛華嚴經》
「人中尊導現生已,  遊行諸方各七步,
 觀察一切眾生類,  無礙法門覺一切。
 觀見眾生沒五欲,  人中師子現微笑,
 眾生盲冥愚癡覆,  我當度脫三有苦。
 大師子吼出妙音,  我為世間第一尊,
 顯現明淨智慧燈,  永滅生死愚癡闇。 …
一生補處菩薩摩訶薩,嚴淨震動一切佛剎,釋、梵、四天王咸悉請求降神下生,以無[5]礙慧眼普觀世間一切眾生無勝我者,示現出生遊行七步大師子吼

183

424-452 《大般涅槃經》
「生已即能東行七步。唱如是言。我於人天阿修羅中最尊最上。父母人天見已驚喜生希有心。是諸人等謂是嬰兒。而我此身無量劫來久離是法。如是身者即是法身。非是肉血筋脈骨髓之所成立。隨順世間眾生法故示為嬰兒。南行七步示現欲為無量眾生作上福田。西行七步示現生盡永斷老死是最後身。北行七步示現已度諸有生死。東行七步示為眾生而作導首。四維七步示現斷滅種種煩惱四魔種性成於如來應供正遍知。上行七步示現不為不淨之物之所染污猶如虛空。下行七步示現法雨滅地獄火令彼眾生受安隱樂毀禁戒者示作霜雹 … 何等名為未曾有經。如彼菩薩初出生時。無人扶持即行七步 … 四方各行滿足七步 … 若見菩薩初生之時。於十方面各行七步。

184

431 《菩薩善戒經》
「於十方面行七步時。無人扶侍作如是言。我今此身是最後邊。」185

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「自行七步,舉其右手而師子吼:『我於一切天人之中最尊最勝,無量生死於今盡矣,此生利益一切人天。』」

435-443 《大方廣寶篋經》
「自行七步口出是言。我於一切世中最勝世中最大。我今當為滅諸生死。」186

435-443《雜阿含經》
「時,王將四兵軍眾,及持種種供養香華、幡幢,及諸伎樂,便將尊者發去。尊者隆頻林,此是如來生處,而說偈言:
「『如來初生處,  生時行七步, 顧視諸四方,  舉手指天上,
 我今最後生,  當得無上道, 天上及於人,  我為無上尊 …
時,尊者舉手,指摩耶夫人所攀樹枝,而告彼樹神曰:『樹神!今現,令王見之,生大歡喜。』尋聲即見,住尊者邊,而作是言:『何所教勅?我當奉行。』尊者語王言:『此神見佛生時。』王以偈問神曰:
『汝見嚴飾身,  生時青蓮華, 足行於七步,  口中有所說。』
神以偈答曰:
『我見相好身,  生時二足尊, 舉足行七步,  口中有所說,
 於諸天人中,  我為無上尊。』

187

437-439 《阿毘曇毘婆沙論》
「菩薩已生。行於七步。」188

445 《賢愚經》
「即行七步,舉手而言:『天上天下,唯我為尊。』 … 尋行七步,稱天人尊」189

455 《治禪病祕要法》
「生時行七步」190

472 《付法藏因緣傳》
「地神化華以承其足。四方各行滿足七步。」191

488 《善見律毘婆沙》
「佛以慈悲心而答婆羅門:『我不見佛於林中生時,墮地向北行七步,自觀百億萬天人、梵、魔、沙門婆羅門,無堪受我禮者。觀看已而自唱言:「天上天下,唯我為尊。」梵天聞菩薩唱已,即叉手而言:「菩薩三界獨尊,無有過者。」菩薩聞已,作師子吼:「唯我獨尊。」』佛語婆羅門:『爾時我未得道時,三界已自獨尊,何況於今眾善功德拜我為佛,云何為汝作禮耶?若人受我禮者,頭即墮地,是故汝勿於佛處希望禮拜。』」192

502-518 《弘明集》
「墮地行七步。舉右手曰。天上天下靡有踰我者也。」

502-557 《釋迦譜》
「墮地行七步。顯揚梵音。天上天下為人天尊。大善權經云。菩薩行地七步亦不八步。是為正士應七覺意覺不覺也。舉手而言。吾於世間設不現斯。各當自尊。外道梵志必墜惡趣。為善權方便。」

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「無扶侍者自行七步。大善權云。為應七覺故行七步。涅槃經於十方面各行七步。經云。便舉右手言。我於一切天人中。最尊最勝無量生死盡矣。利益一切天人。大權云。舉手現相者。為除外道自尊必墮惡道。故本起云。天上天下唯我為尊。三界皆苦何可樂者。」

512 《阿育王經》
「即往彼處時優波笈多將阿育王至佛生處入嵐毘尼林(翻解脫處)舉右手指言。阿育王。此是佛生處。而說偈言。
 世尊第一處  生便行七步 淨眼觀四方  而作師子吼
 是我最後生  處胎住亦然 …
優波笈多為阿育王生大信心。而問王言。有天見佛初生行七步。及聞師子吼王欲見耶。王答言大德。我今欲見優波笈多言。如來初生摩耶夫人所攀樹枝天在其中。即便以手指示其處。而說偈言。
 若有諸天人  住在此林中 得見世尊生  復聞師子吼
 當現其自身  為阿育生信
是時天人便現其身。於優波笈多前立合掌說言。大德令我欲何所作。時優波笈多語阿育王。此天見佛生時。阿育王合掌向天。而說偈言。
 汝見佛初生  百福莊嚴身 佛面如蓮花  世間所愛樂
 復聞師子吼  依此大林中
是時天人復以偈答。
 我已見佛身  光明如金色 七步行虛空  二足中最勝
 亦聞師子吼  為天人中尊」193

The Biographical Scripture of King Aśoka
Upagupta took King Aśoka to the Buddha’s birthplace in the wood of Luṃbinī, and said with his right hand pointing to the place, “King Aśoka, this is the Buddha’s birthplace.” And the he uttered the following stanza:
This is the first place of the World-honored One,
Where he walked seven steps after he was born.
With pure eyes he observed the four quarters
And made a Lion’s Roar, saying,
“This is my last birth From a mother’s womb.”
King Aśoka prostrated himself on the ground to worship the place where the Tathāgata was born and uttered the following stanza with his hands joined palm to palm:
One who has seen the Buddha Possesses great merits.
If one has heard the Lion’s Roar, He gains the same merits.
In order to engender a mind of deep faith in King Aśoka, Upagupta asked him, “Do you wish to see a heavenly being who saw the Buddha walking seven steps after he was born and heard the Lion’s Roar?” The king said in reply, “Most Virtuous One, I do wish to see him.” Upagupta said, “The heavenly being is residing on the branch that Mahāmāyā was holding when the Tathāgata was born.” Then he pointed to the place and uttered the following stanza:
If there is any heavenly being Residing in this wood,
Who has seen the World-honored One And heard his Lion’s Roar,
May he appear in person To engender Aśoka’s conviction.
The heavenly being then appeared in person and stood with hands joined palm to palm before Upagupta, to whom he said, “Most Virtuous One, what do you wish me to do?”
Upagupta said to King Aśoka, “This heavenly being saw the Buddha at the time of his birth.” With his hands joined palm to palm, King Aśoka uttered the following stanza to the heavenly being:
You saw the Buddha when he was born With a dignified body of a hundred blisses.
His features resembled a lotus flower, Loved and admired by the whole world.
You also heard the Lion’s Roar Right in this great wood.
The heavenly being uttered the following stanza in reply:
I have seen the Buddha’s body, Brillant with golden hues,
Walking seven steps in air, The supreme one among all bipeds.
The Lion’s Roar I also heard, Honored by heavenly beings and mankind.194

516 《經律異相》
「身長丈六。即行七步。寶華承足。舉手住而言。天上天下唯我為尊。三界皆苦何可樂者。」195

Divine bath after taking seven steps:

Buddhacarita
“Two streams of water bursting from heaven, bright as the moon's rays, having the power of heat and cold, fell down upon that peerless one's benign head to give refreshment to his body”196

197 《修行本起經》
「有龍王兄弟,一名迦羅,二名欝迦羅,左雨溫水,右雨冷泉」

223-253 《太子瑞應本起經》
「四天王接置金机上,以天香湯,浴太子身。

223-253 《佛說義足經》卷2:「復雨香水,盥浴太子」197

270 《佛說文殊師利現寶藏經》
「龍王吐水,釋梵共浴」198

280-312 《異出菩薩本起經》
「四天王即來下作禮,抱持太子,置黃金机上,和湯浴形」

285 《慧上菩薩問大善權經》
「何故菩薩清淨無垢而復洗浴,釋梵四天所見供侍?凡人初生皆當洗浴,菩薩清淨,隨俗而浴。況世人乎故現此義,是為菩薩善權方便。」199

290-306 《佛說灌洗佛形像經》
「第一四天王。乃至梵天忉利天王。其中諸天各持十二種香和湯雜種名花以浴太子。」

297 《漸備一切智德經》
「諸龍浴體」200

308 《普曜經》
「天帝釋梵忽然來下,雜名香水洗浴菩薩,九龍在上而下香水,洗浴聖尊,洗浴竟已身心清淨」

350-413 《大乘悲分陀利經》
「我欲浴時令其中最勝龍王彼來浴我」201

383 《鞞婆沙論》
「二龍洗浴。

202

388-407《佛說摩訶剎頭經》(亦名灌佛形像經)
「第七梵天。第二忉利天王釋。及第一四天王。皆來下持十二種香湯雜華。用浴太子身。」

397-398 《中阿含未曾有法品未曾有法經》
「世尊初生之時,上虛空中雨水注下,一冷一暖,灌世尊身」

405 《高僧法顯傳》
「從舍衛城東南行十二由延到一邑名那毘伽 … 城東五十里有王園。園名論民。夫人入池洗浴出池。北岸二十步舉手攀樹枝東向生太子。太子墮地行七步。二龍王浴太子。身浴處遂作井。及上洗浴池。」203

414-421 《大般涅槃經》
「難陀龍王及跋難陀以神通力浴菩薩身。

204

414-426 《佛所行讚》
「應時虛空中,  淨水雙流下,
 一溫一清涼,  灌頂令身樂。

424-452 《大般涅槃經》
「難陀龍王及跋難陀。以神通力浴菩薩身。」205

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「難陀龍王、優波難陀龍王,於虛空中,吐清淨水,一溫一涼,灌太子身」

435-443 《大方廣寶篋經》
「空中自然出生二水釋梵洗浴。

206

502-557 《釋迦譜》
「大善權經云 … 九龍在上而下香水洗浴菩薩 … 修行本起云。龍王兄弟左雨溫水右雨冷泉。」

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「難陀龍王兄弟於空吐水。溫涼沐身。普曜云。釋梵雨香。九龍下香水浴身。修行云。水左溫右冷釋衣裹身。」

516 《經律異相》
「龍降香水以充洗浴。

207

Episode #6: Gifts

Royal cot:

Buddhacarita
“His body lay on a bed with a royal canopy and a frame shining with gold, and supported by feet of lapis lazuli”208

414-426 《佛所行讚》
「安處寶宮殿,  臥於琉璃床,
 天王金華手,  奉持床四足。

Divine protection:

Buddhacarita
“in his honour the yakṣa-lords stood round guarding him with golden lotuses in their hands”209

197 《修行本起經》
「釋梵四王與其官屬,諸龍、鬼神、閱叉、揵陀羅、阿須倫,皆來侍衛」

223-253 《太子瑞應本起經》
「梵釋神天,皆下於空中侍。

424-452 《大般涅槃經》
「摩尼跋陀大鬼神王。執持寶蓋隨後侍立。」210

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「時四天王在虛空中,恭敬隨從;釋提桓因執蓋來覆;有二十八大鬼神王,在園四角,守衛奉護。

435-443 《大方廣寶篋經》
「又聞生時大地震動釋梵扶侍。

211

445 《賢愚經》
「萬神侍衛 … 梵釋侍御」212

472 《付法藏因緣傳》
「摩尼跋陀大鬼神王。執持寶蓋隨後侍立。」213

502-557 《釋迦譜》
「大善權經云 … 天帝釋梵雨雜名香。斯。各當自尊。外道梵志必墜惡趣。為善權方便。」

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「諸夜叉王圍繞守護。

516 《經律異相》
「釋梵奉侍。

214

Divine devotion:

Buddhacarita
“The gods in homage to the son of Māyā, with their heads bowed at his majesty, held up a white umbrella in the sky and muttered the highest blessings on his supreme wisdom. The great dragons in their great thirst for the Law, -- they who had had the privilege of waiting on the past Buddhas, -- gazing with eyes of intent devotion, fanned him and strewed Mandāra flowers over him.”215

25-220 《大方便佛報恩經》卷79 親近品〉:「諸天、鬼神、乾闥婆、阿修羅、迦樓羅、緊那羅、摩睺羅伽,以諸華香、微妙伎樂、幡蓋供養」216

225 《佛說無量壽經》
「釋梵奉侍天人歸仰。

217

270 《佛說文殊師利現寶藏經》
「我聞初始生時,釋梵奉敬皆動天地」218

297 《漸備一切智德經》
「釋梵稽首」219

350-413 《大乘悲分陀利經》
「令我生時娑訶佛土大梵魔王、帝釋、日月護世諸天、龍王、阿修羅化生大威德,夜叉、羅剎、龍、修羅令彼一切來供養我。

220

414-421 《菩薩地持經》
「天龍夜叉乾闥婆阿修羅迦樓羅緊那羅摩睺羅伽等。以天香花伎樂幢幡。種種嚴飾而為供養。」221

414-421 《大般涅槃經》
「諸天形像承迎禮拜。

222

414-426 《佛所行讚》
「諸天於空中,  執持寶蓋侍,
 承威神讚歎,  勸發成佛道。
 諸龍王歡喜,  渴仰殊勝法,
 曾奉過去佛,  今得值菩薩。」

414-426 《大方等大集經》
「光因緣故感動無量天龍夜叉及阿修羅人非人等。一切悉來而共供養。」223

418 《大方廣佛華嚴經》
「人中師子初生時,  一切諸勝悉奉敬,
 天王帝釋梵天王,  諸有智者悉敬侍。

224

424-452 《大般涅槃經》
「摩尼跋陀富那跋陀鬼神大將執持幡蓋 …諸天形像承迎禮拜。

225

431 《菩薩善戒經》
「諸天鬼神乾闥婆阿修羅迦樓羅緊那羅摩睺羅伽。以諸華香微妙伎樂幡蓋供養。」226

435-443 《雜阿含經》
「太子生時,令向彼神禮。時,諸神悉禮菩薩。時,諸民人為菩薩立名,今是天中天。」227

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「一切天人讚歎種智。速成佛道早轉法輪度脫眾生。惟有魔王不安本座。」

Episode #7: Celebrations

Light:

Acchariya-abhuta Sutta, Majjhima Nikāya
“When the Bodhisatta came forth from his mother’s womb, then a great immeasurable light surpassing the splendor of the gods appeared in the world.’”228

Buddhacarita
“when he was born from his mother's womb, made the world bright like gold, bursting forth with his rays which dispelled the darkness”229

Lalitavistara
“The whole of the three thousand regions became aglow with the touch of the highest pleasure, with the growth of the mental and corporeal pleasures of all beings, and with the resplendence of many thousands of variegated colours … At that time the farthest bound of all regions become aglow in a resplendent light.”230

197 《修行本起經》
「三千大千剎土莫不大明」

223-253 《太子瑞應本起經》
「是時天地大動,宮中盡明。

223-253《佛說義足經》
「是太子生時,地大動現大光明,悉照一切生」231

252 《佛說無量壽經》
「光明顯曜。普照十方無量佛土。」232

270 《佛說文殊師利現寶藏經》
「放大光明休息眾惡道,一切諸根皆而具足,及於其本不具足者。皆令群生去塵勞恚,悉使安隱」233

280-312 《異出菩薩本起經》
「太子生時,上至三十三天下至十六泥犁,傍行八極,萬二千天地,皆為大明」

350-413 《大乘悲分陀利經》
「我當從母右脇而出,又以妙光普照娑訶佛剎無不周遍」234

397-398 《中阿含未曾有法品未曾有法經》
「以大妙光普照世間,乃至幽隱諸闇冥處無有障蔽,謂此日月有大如意足,有大威德,有大福祐,有大威神,光所不照者,彼盡蒙耀,彼眾生者因此妙光各各生知」235

397-439 《優婆夷淨行法門經》
「菩薩生時,自然光明照世界者,菩薩為得三達智故。

236

402-406 《大智度論》
「生時行七步,  光明滿十方; 四觀發大音,  我生胎分盡。 … 生時光明遍照三千大千世界 … 所謂佛生時,身放大光明,照三千大千世界及幽闇之處,復照十方無量諸佛三千大千世界。

237

414-421 《大般涅槃經》
「何等名為未曾有經。如彼菩薩初出生時無人扶持。即行七步放大光明遍觀十方 … 金光晃曜彌滿虛空。

238

414-426 《大方等大集經》
「放種種光能與一切眾生安樂。

239

424-452 《大般涅槃經》
「放大光明遍觀十方 … 金光晃曜彌滿虛空。

240

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「十方世界,皆悉大明」241

435-443 《大方廣寶篋經》
「放大光明遍照世界。

242

435-443 《雜阿含經》
「時,王問神言:『佛生有何瑞應?』神答言:『我不能宣說妙勝諸事,今略說少分:
『光明能徹照,  身體具相好, 令人喜樂見,  感動於天地。』」243

445 《賢愚經》
「光照天地」244

512 《阿育王經》
「時王問言。如來生時有何瑞相。天人答言。我今不能廣說妙事。略說少分。即說偈言。
 放金色光明  照於盲世間 人天所愛樂  及山海地動
乃至阿育王。以十萬兩金供養如來初生之處。即便起塔復往餘處。

245

The Biographical Scripture of King Aśoka
The king inquired, “What were the auspicious signs when the Tathāgata was born.” The heavenly being answered, “It is not possible for me to relate all the wonderful things in full. I can tell only a few things briefly.” Then he uttered he following stanza:
Emitting a light of golden color,
Shining upon this blind world,
He was adored by men and beings in heavens,
And the earth quaked with the sea and mountains.
King Aśoka offered a hundred thousand taels of gold to the birthplace of the Tathāgata, where he constructed a stupa. Then he went to the other places.246

Earthquake:

Acchariya-abhuta Sutta, Majjhima Nikāya
“And this ten-thousandfold world system shook and quaked and trembled.’”247

Buddhacarita
“When he was born, the earth, though fastened down by (Himālaya) the monarch of mountains, shook like a ship tossed by the wind”248

Lalitavistara
“frightful, horripilating, extensive earthquakes took place”249

197 《修行本起經》
「應時天地大動」

223-253 《太子瑞應本起經》
「是時天地大動」

223-253 《佛說義足經》
「是太子生時,地大動」250

252 《佛說無量壽經》
「六種振動。

251

270 《佛說文殊師利現寶藏經》
「我聞初始生時,釋梵奉敬皆動天地」252

280-312 《異出菩薩本起經》
「天地為之振動,乃下為兒」

290-306 《佛說灌洗佛形像經》
「太子生時地為大動。

290-307 《佛般泥洹經》
「菩薩從右脇生時,天地為大動。

350-413 《大乘悲分陀利經》
「滿十月生時,以集一切福德三昧,六種震動,一切娑訶佛土,上至阿迦尼吒天下至金輪際,皆悉震動。

253

365-384 《中陰經》
「當生之時天地六反震動。十方諸佛皆來扶助。是謂一弘誓法。云何為六反震動。東踊西沒。西踊東沒。北踊南沒。南踊北沒。四面都踊則中央沒。中央踊則四面沒。」254

388-407《佛說摩訶剎頭經》(亦名灌佛形像經)
「太子生時天地皆為大動。

397-398 《中阿含未曾有法品未曾有法經》
「我聞世尊知出母胎,是時震動一切天地」255

397-439《優婆夷淨行法門經》卷23 瑞應品〉:「菩薩生時於三千大千世界,一切眾生蠕動之類皆大歡喜,是為十六奇特之法 … 菩薩生時,地大震動者,菩薩現此生盡,無復煩惱;一切眾生應得道者,煩惱將滅,是故地動。

256

402-406 《大智度論》
「生時動三千,  須彌山海水; 為破老病死,  哀愍故生世。

257

413 《長阿含經遊行經》
「菩薩始出母胎,從右脇生,專念不亂,則普地動」

Mahāparinibbānna Sutta, Digha Nīkāya
“Again, when a Bodhisatta emerges from his mother’s womb, mindful and clearly aware, then the earth shudders and shakes and violently quakes.”258

414-421 《大般涅槃經》
「摩尼跋陀富那跋陀鬼神大將。執持幡蓋。震動無量無邊世界。」259

414-426 《佛所行讚》
「菩薩出興世,  功德風所飄,
 普皆大震動,  如風鼓浪舟。

414-426 《大方等大集經》
「脚所蹈處皆有蓮華承捧其足。以此脚踏行步因緣。一切山河地及大海悉皆濤動。」260

424-452 《大般涅槃經》
「震動無量無邊世界。

261

435-443 《大方廣寶篋經》
「又聞生時大地震動」262

455 《治禪病祕要法》
「足躡動大千」263

502-518 《弘明集》
「時天地大動宮中皆明。

512 《阿育王經》
「時王問言。如來生時有何瑞相。天人答言。我今不能廣說妙事。略說少分。即說偈言。
 放金色光明  照於盲世間 人天所愛樂  及山海地動
乃至阿育王。以十萬兩金供養如來初生之處。即便起塔復往餘處。

264

The Biographical Scripture of King Aśoka
The king inquired, “What were the auspicious signs when the Tathāgata was born.” The heavenly being answered, “It is not possible for me to relate all the wonderful things in full. I can tell only a few things briefly.” Then he uttered he following stanza:
Emitting a light of golden color,
Shining upon this blind world,
He was adored by men and beings in heavens,
And the earth quaked with the sea and mountains.
King Aśoka offered a hundred thousand taels of gold to the birthplace of the Tathāgata, where he constructed a stupa. Then he went to the other places.265

Heavenly magnificence:

Buddhacarita
“and from a cloudless sky there fell a shower full of lotuses and water-lilies, and perfumed with sandalwood. Pleasant breezes blew soft to the touch, dropping down heavenly garments; the very sun, though still the same, shone with augmented light, and fire gleamed, unstirred, with a gentle lustre”266

Lalitavistara
“superhuman celestial clarions sounded without being blown by any one … Devas slowly showered down from the cloudless sky small particles of rain.”267

223-253 《太子瑞應本起經》
「當此日夜,天降瑞應,有三十二種」

223-253 《佛說義足經》
「諸天於空中持白蓋,復散摩尼花」268

397-398 《中阿含未曾有法品未曾有法經》
「世尊初生之時,諸天於上鼓天妓樂,天青蓮華、紅蓮華、赤蓮華、白蓮華、天文陀羅花及細末栴檀香散世尊上」

397-439 《優婆夷淨行法門經》
「菩薩生時,有三十二瑞相一時俱現」269

414-426 《佛所行讚》
「日月如常度,  光耀倍增明,
 世界諸火光,  無薪自炎熾,
 淨水清涼井,  前後自然生。

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「當爾之時,所感瑞應,三十有四」

445 《賢愚經》
「淨飯王子,厥名悉達,其生之日,天降瑞應三十有二 … 三十二瑞,振動顯發」270

455 《治禪病祕要法》
「十方諸神應  嘉瑞三十二

271

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「爾時瑞應又降三十有四。

512 《阿育王經》
「時王問言。如來生時有何瑞相。天人答言。我今不能廣說妙事。略說少分。即說偈言。
 放金色光明  照於盲世間 人天所愛樂  及山海地動
乃至阿育王。以十萬兩金供養如來初生之處。即便起塔復往餘處。

272

The Biographical Scripture of King Aśoka
The king inquired, “What were the auspicious signs when the Tathāgata was born.” The heavenly being answered, “It is not possible for me to relate all the wonderful things in full. I can tell only a few things briefly.” Then he uttered he following stanza:
Emitting a light of golden color,
Shining upon this blind world,
He was adored by men and beings in heavens,
And the earth quaked with the sea and mountains.
King Aśoka offered a hundred thousand taels of gold to the birthplace of the Tathāgata, where he constructed a stupa. Then he went to the other places.273

Miracles in the garden:

Buddhacarita
“a well of pure water appeared of its own accord … Through the troops of heavenly visitants, who came seeking religious merit, the pool itself received strength to behold Buddha, and by means of its trees bearing flowers and perfumes it eagerly offered him worship. The flowering trees at once produced their blossoms, while their fragrance was borne aloft in all directions by the wind, accompanied by the songs of bewildered female bees, while the air was inhaled and absorbed by the many snakes (gathering near).”274

Lalitavistara
“Then trees of every season bore flowers and fruits in the three thousand great thousand regions. Clear rolling sounds of the clouds were heard under the sky … Delightful, mild, fragrant breeze loaded with many kinds of flowers, apparels, ornaments, and aromatic powders circulated everywhere. Free from darkness, dust, smoke and tog all the sides sparkled delightfully. From above the sky loud, deep and grave sounds were heard … Innumerable were the flowers, powders, essences, garlands, jewels, ornaments and apparels which were showered from the clouds”275

197 《修行本起經》
「天雨花香,彈琴鼓樂,熏香燒香,擣香澤香,虛空側塞」

402-406 《大智度論》
「地大震動,天雨眾花,樹出音聲,作天伎樂。

如是等無量希有事,是名未曾有經。」276

414-426 《佛所行讚》
「奇特眾妙花,  非時而敷榮,
 凶暴眾生類,  一時生慈心,
 世間諸疾病,  不療自然除。

Meritorious birth:

Lalitavistara
“All beings were devoted to the gratification of the newly-born Bodhisattva. They were all devoid of auger, malice, delusion, pride, dejection, disappointment, fear, covetousness, envy, and vanity. All were averted from all hurtful actions. The diseased got rid of their ailments. The hungry and the thirsty had their hunger and thirst subdued. Drunkards had their drunkenness removed. The insane got their reason back. The blind got back their power of vision, and the deaf their hearing. Those who had deformities in their mouth or other parts of their bodies had those defects removed. The poor obtained wealth, and the bound their freedom from bonds. The sufferings of those who dwelt in Avichi and other hells were suppressed at the time. The brute creation were free from the pain of devouring each other, and the dwellers in the region of Yama suffered not from hunger, thirst, and the like. ”

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「天龍八部空中作樂歌頌佛德。燒香散花雨衣瓔珞紛繽亂墜。」

Joyous birth:

Buddhacarita
“Gladdened through the influence of the birth of the Tathāgata, the gods of pure natures and inhabiting pure abodes were filled with joy’”277

Lalitavistara
All creation was immersed in the highest delight.”278

414-426 《佛所行讚》
「散曼陀羅花,  專心樂供養,
 如來出興世,  淨居天歡喜。
 已除愛欲歡,  為法而欣悅,
 眾生沒苦海,  令得解脫故。」

Music and dance:

Buddhacarita
“on both sides songs mingled with musical instruments and tabours, and lutes also, drums, tambourines, and the rest, from women adorned with dancing bracelets”279

Lalitavistara
“Great were the sounds of singing and dancing at the time … for seven nights from the day of the birth of the Bodhisattva in the Lumbini garden, he was with the music of the clarion and the tadava beserved, respected, honoured, and adored”280

197 《修行本起經》
「夫人抱太子,乘交龍車,幢幡伎樂,導從還宮」

223-253 《佛說義足經》
「復鼓五百樂」281

270 《佛說文殊師利現寶藏經》
「諸天人民[1]弦鼓伎樂」(CBETA, T14, no. 461, p. 462, a1-2)282

308 《普曜經》
「菩薩生時夙夜七日,伎樂眾供百種飲食,隣鞞樹下奉菩薩母,布施、持戒、忍辱、精進興功立德」

397-398 《中阿含經‧未曾有法品》
「我聞世尊初生之時,諸天於上鼓天妓樂,天青蓮華、紅蓮華、赤蓮華、白蓮華、天文陀羅花及細末栴檀香散世尊上。

283

397-439 《優婆夷淨行法門經》
「菩薩生時,世間樂器自然鳴者,菩薩為得八三昧故。毘舍佉!菩薩生時,不鼓自鳴者,菩薩為欲擊大法鼓故。」284

414-426 《佛所行讚》
「萬川皆停流,  濁水悉澄清, 空中無雲翳,  天鼓自然鳴。

285

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「天龍八部亦於空中作天伎樂,歌唄讚頌,燒眾名香,散諸妙花,又雨天衣及以瓔珞,繽紛亂墜不可稱數」

435-443 《大方廣寶篋經》
「人天伎樂不鼓自鳴。

286

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「爾時白淨王,叉手合掌,禮諸天神;前抱太子,置於七寶象輿之上,與諸群臣後宮婇女虛空諸天,作諸伎樂,隨從入城。

Episode #8: Return to Palace

Return to palace:

197 《修行本起經》
「夫人抱太子,乘交龍車,幢幡伎樂,導從還宮」

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「爾時白淨王,叉手合掌,禮諸天神;前抱太子,置於七寶象輿之上,與諸群臣後宮婇女虛空諸天,作諸伎樂,隨從入城。

Procession out of palace:

Buddhacarita
“When ten days were fulfilled after his son's birth, with his thoughts kept under restraint, and filled with excessive joy, he offered for his son most elaborate sacrifices to the gods with muttered prayers, oblations, and all kinds of auspicious ceremonies. And he himself gave to the Brāhmans for his son's welfare cows full of milk, with no traces of infirmity, golden-horned and with strong healthy calves, to the full number of a hundred thousand. Then he, with his soul under strict restraint, having performed all kinds of ceremonies which rejoiced his heart, on a fortunate day, in an auspicious moment, gladly determined to enter his city. Then the queen with her babe having worshipped the gods for good fortune, occupied a costly palanquin made of elephants' tusks, filled with all kinds of white flowers, and blazing with gems. Having made his wife with her child enter first into the city, accompanied by the aged attendants, the king himself also advanced, saluted by the hosts of the citizens, as Indra entering heaven, saluted by the immortals.”287

Lalitavistara
“the Bodhisattva entered the great city of Kapilavastu with a retinue millionfold greater than that with which Mayadevi had seven days previously issued forth … five thousand pitchers filled with scented stream water … Five thousand maidens, holding peacock's tail chouries … Five thousand maidens, holding palm-leaf fans … Five thousand maidens, holding spouted urns full of aromatic water … Five thousand maidens, holding pieces of chintz … Five thousand maidens, holding fresh, variegated, long garlands … Five thousand maidens, holding appropriate jewelled ornaments … Five thousand maidens, carrying appropriate chairs … five hundred thousand Brabmans, holding bells … Twenty thousand elephants, arrayed in beautiful ornaments … Twenty thousand horses, richly caparisoned and decked with golden ornaments … Eighty thousand chariots mounted with white umbrellas, flags, pennons and networks of bells … Forty thousand veteran heroes of majestic form, arrayed in invulnerable mail coats and breast-plates … Kamavacharas followed the train, offering worship to the Bodhisattva with various collections of offerings. The magnificent chariot in which the Bodhisattva repaired had been decorated by Kamavachara devas with numerous collections of precious articles. Twenty thousand celestial maidens set off with numerous ornaments and holding jewelled threads dragged that chariot. Between every two Apsarases there was one human female, and between every two human females there was one Apsaras”288

223-253 《太子瑞應本起經》
「 夫人即裹以白褻,乳母抱養,字名悉達 … 即嚴駕白象,導從伎樂,出詣道人,」

280-312 《異出菩薩本起經》
「其乳母,以[*]布囊授其母,即亦自乳養,名為悉達。悉達生身,有三十二相。明日,王與夫人議:「吾子生不與人同,國中有大道人,年百餘歲,大工相人,字為阿夷,寧可俱行相太子。」夫人曰:「大善!」王與夫人,共行到道人所」

414-426 《佛所行讚》
「生子滿十日,  安隱心已泰, 普祠諸天神,  廣施於有道。
 沙門婆羅門,  呪願祈吉福, 嚫施諸群臣,  及國中貧乏。
 村城婇女眾,  牛馬象財錢, 各隨彼所須,  一切皆給與。
 卜擇選良時,  遷子還本宮, 二飯白淨牙,  七寶莊嚴輿。
 雜色珠絞絡,  明焰極光澤, 夫人抱太子,  周匝禮天神。
 然後昇寶輿,  婇女眾隨侍, 王與諸臣民,  一切俱導從。
 猶如天帝釋,  諸天眾圍遶, 如摩醯首羅,  忽生六面子。
 設種種眾具,  供給及請福, 今王生太子,  設眾具亦然。」

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「經云。時白淨王將禮天神。前抱太子置象輿上。群臣婇女諸天作樂。」

Fortune of baby:

Buddhacarita
“Then having learned by signs and through the power of his penances this birth of him who was to destroy all birth, the great seer Asita in his thirst for the excellent Lawcame to the palace of the Śākya king. Him shining with the glory of sacred knowledge and ascetic observances, the king's own priest, -- himself a special student among the students of sacred knowledge, -- introduced into the royal palace with all due reverence and respect. He entered into the precincts of the king's gynaeceum, which was all astir with the joy arisen from the birth of the young prince, -- grave from his consciousness of power, his pre-eminence in asceticism, and the weight of old age … `But hear now the motive for my coming and rejoice thereat; a heavenly voice has been heard by me in the heavenly path, that thy son has been born for the sake of supreme knowledge. Having heard that voice and applied my mind thereto, and having known its truth by signs, I am now come hither, with a longing to see the banner of the Śākya race, as if it were Indra's banner being set up.’ Having heard this address of his, the king, with his steps bewildered with joy, took the prince, who lay on his nurse's side, and showed him to the holy ascetic. Thus the great seer beheld the king's son with wonder, -- his foot marked with a wheel, his fingers and toes webbed, with a circle of hair between his eyebrows, and signs of vigour like an elephant. Having beheld him seated on his nurse's side, like the son of Agni (Skanda) seated on Devī's side, he stood with the tears hanging on the ends of his eyelashes,and sighing he looked up towards heaven. But seeing Asita with his eyes thus filled with tears, the king was agitated through his love for his son, and with his hands clasped and his body bowed he thus asked him in a broken voice choked with weeping, `One whose beauty has little to distinguish it from that of a divine sage,and whose brilliant birth has been so wonderful, and for whom thou hast prophesied a transcendent future, -- wherefore, on seeing him, do tears come to thee, O reverend one? … `I have no feeling of fear as to his being subject to change, but I am distressed for mine own disappointment. It is my time to depart, and this child is now born, -- he who knows that mystery hard to attain, the means of destroying birth. Having forsaken his kingdom, indifferent to all worldly objects, and having attained the highest truth by strenuous efforts, he will shine forth as a sun of knowledge to destroy the darkness of illusion in the world. He will deliver by the boat of knowledge the distressed world, borne helplessly along, from the ocean of misery which throws up sickness as its foam, tossing with the waves of old age, and rushing with the dreadful onflow of death. … He, the king of the Law, when he has attained to supreme knowledge, will achieve the deliverance from its bonds of the world now overcome by misery, destitute of every refuge, and enveloped in its own chains of delusion. … Then the sage Asita, having made known the real fate which awaited the prince to the king who was thus disturbed about his son, departed by the way of the wind as he had come, his figure watched reverentially in his flight.”289

Lalitavistara
“At that time there lived on the side of the noble Himavat mountain a great sage (maharshi) named Asita. He was versed in all the five sciences, and lived with his nephew Naradatta. At the moment of Bodhisattva's birth he beheld many extraordinary, wonderful, magical occurrences. He saw Devaputras moving about in great joy under the sky, and, high in the void above, resounding the name of Buddha. The wish arose in his mind, "I must inquire into this mystery.' With his intellectual eyes he surveyed the whole of the Jambudvipa. He beheld in the great city called Kapila, in the house of king Śuddhodana, a prince was born, who was refulgent with the light of a hundred virtues, who was the adored of all regions, who bore on his person the thirty-two signs of greatness. … Should he remain at home he will become a great sovereign, owner of a fourfold army, an emperor, victorious, virtuous, master of religion, ruler of countries, possessed of great might, and endowed with the seven jewels, and these will be the seven jewels,viz., the jewel wheel, the jewel elephant, the jewel horse, the jewel ruby, the jewel wife, the jewel lord chamberlain, the jewel commander-in-chief. Unto him will be born a thousand sons, valorous, heroic, handsome, and oppressors of enemical armies. He will conquer the whole circle of the earth to the brink of the ocean through his impartial discipline, his arms, his religion, and his might, and reign over all with supremacy and power. Should he, however, retire from urban life to a hermitage, he will become a Tathāgata, an Arhat, a knower of the perfect knowledge (samyak-sambuddha), a leader of unfailing policy, a lawgiver, and a perfect Buddha in this region. I should, therefore, proceed to see him. … I know this for certain, O king, that whosoever has on his body the thirty-two noble and untainted signs, has one of two careers open to him, and not a third; he will either become a Chakravarti sovereign, or a Buddha, the noblest of men. This Prince is not desirous of sensuous objects, so he will be a Buddha.”290

197 《修行本起經》
「於是香山有道士名阿夷,中夜覺天地大動,觀見光明暉赫非常,山中有[15]花,名優曇鉢,花中自然生師子王,墮地便行七步,舉頭而吼,面四十里,其中飛鳥走獸、蜎飛蚑行蠕動之類,莫不懾伏。阿夷念言:『世間有佛,應現此瑞。今世五濁盛惡,何故有此吉祥瑞應?』天曉飛到迦維衛國,未及國城,四十里外,忽然落地。心甚驚喜:『此必有佛,於我無疑。』步詣宮門,門監白王:『阿夷在門。』王愕然曰:『阿夷常飛,今者何故在門求通?』王即出禮拜迎,澡洗沐浴,施新衣服,問訊:『今日臨顧,勞屈尊聖!』阿夷答言:『聞大王夫人生太子,故來瞻省。』勅其內人,抱太子出。侍女白言:『太子疲懈,始得安眠。』阿夷喜悅,便說偈言:
『大雄常自覺,  覺諸不覺者, 歷劫無睡臥,  豈當眠寐乎?』
於是侍女,抱太子出,欲以太子向阿夷禮。阿夷便驚起,前禮太子足。國王及群臣,見國師阿夷敬禮太子,心便悚然,益知至尊,即頭面禮太子足。阿夷猛力,迴伏百壯士,方抱太子,筋骨委震,見奇相三十二、八十種好,身如金剛,殊妙難量,悉如祕讖,必當成佛,於我無疑,淚下哽咽悲不能言。時王惶怖請問:『太子有不祥乎?吉凶願告,幸勿有難。』阿夷自抑制,即便說偈言:
『今生大聖人,  除世諸災患, 傷我自無福,  七日當命終。
 不見神變化,  說法雨世間, 今與太子別,  是故自悲泣。』
 太子舉手言:  『五道十方人, 吾當盡教化,  皆令得其所。
 [本我意所願,  當度薩和薩, 一人不得道,  吾不入泥洹。』
於是阿夷喜,重禮太子足。白淨王怖止歡喜,而說偈言:
『太子有何相?  當何治於世? 願為一一說,  諸相有何福?』
時阿夷以偈答王言:
『今觀太子身,  金色堅固志, 無上金剛杵,  舂破婬欲山。 …
 面光如滿月,  色像花初開, 是以眉間毫,  白淨如明珠。』」291

223-253 《太子瑞應本起經》
「王告夫人:『子生非凡,吾國有道人,名曰阿夷,年百餘歲,耆舊多識,明曉相法;今欲共行相子可乎?』夫人曰:『佳!』即嚴駕白象,導從伎樂,出詣道人,賜黃金白銀各一囊,道人不受。披褻相太子,見有三十二相:軀體金色,頂有肉髻,其髮紺青,眉間白毫,項有日光,目睫紺色,上下俱瞬,口四十齒,齒白齊平,方頰車廣,長舌七合,滿師子膺,身平正,脩臂指長,足跟滿安平趾,手內外握,合縵掌手,足輪千輻理,陰馬藏,鹿腨腸,鈎鎖骨,毛右旋,一一孔一毛生,皮毛細軟,不受塵水,胸有万字。阿夷見此,乃增歎流淚,悲不能言。王夫人懼,拜手而問:『有不祥乎?願告其意。』舉手答曰:『吉無不利!敢賀大王,得生此神人。昨暮天地大動者,其正為此矣。我相法曰:「王者生子,而有三十二大人相者,處國當為轉輪聖王,主四天下,七寶自至,行即能飛,兵仗不用,自然太平。若不樂天下,而棄家為道者,當為自然佛,度脫萬姓。」傷我年已晚暮,當就後世,不覩佛興,不聞其經,故自悲耳。』」292

270 《佛說文殊師利現寶藏經》
「相師梵志豫說瑞應:「若在家者作轉輪聖王,假使出家便當得佛,則為法王而轉法輪。」」293

280-312 《異出菩薩本起經》
「明日,王與夫人議:「吾子生不與人同,國中有大道人,年百餘歲,大工相人,字為阿夷,寧可俱行相太子。」夫人曰:「大善!」王與夫人,共行到道人所,王以黃金一囊,白銀一囊,以上道人,道人不受金銀,即開[*]布而視之。太子有三十二相,神光表現,道人即垂泣而悲。王夫人問:「道人!吾子將有何不善耶?王今日故相太子,欲知善惡,何以故悲泣?」道人曰:「昨日天地振動,正為太子!我傷年老,今我當去世,恨不待此人,恨不聞是人經戒,以故悲泣。」」294

308 《普曜經》
「時阿夷頭覩諸神變,知白淨王生聖太子,威神光曜過天世人;心懷欣豫欲往親覲。於是世尊重為眾會,而說頌曰 … 於是菩薩從寐覺起,大愛道白[*]裹抱來詣王所;王賜黃金白銀各一囊賜道人,道人不受。披[*]相太子,見三十二相:軀體金色,頂有肉髻,其髮紺青,眉間白毛,項出日光,目睫紺色,上下俱眴,口四十齒,齒白齊平,方頰車廣,長舌七合,滿師子膺,身方正,修臂指長,足跟滿安平正,內外握網縵掌,手足輪千輻理,陰馬藏,鹿腨腸,鈎鎖骨,毛右旋,一一孔一毛生,皮毛細軟不受塵水,胸有卍字。阿夷見此乃增歎,流淚悲不能言。王及大愛道心懷惶懼,拜手而問曰:『有不祥乎?願告其意。』舉手答曰:『吉無不利。敢賀大王,得生此神人!昨暮天地大動,其正為此。如我相法,曰王者生子,而有三十二大人相者,處國當為轉輪聖王,自然七寶千子,主四天下治以正法。若捨國出家,為自然佛度脫眾生。傷我年已晚暮當就後世,不覩佛興、不聞其經,故自悲耳。』」295

383 《鞞婆沙論》
「梵志相記於二處非餘。若在家者為轉輪王如法法王。若除鬚髮被著袈裟信樂捨家學道。當成如來無所著等正覺。」296

402-406 《大智度論》
「乃至將示相師:「汝觀我子實有三十二大人相不?若有三十二相具足者,是應有二法:若在家當為轉輪聖王,若出家當成佛。」諸相師言:「地天太子實有三十二大人相,若在家者當作轉輪王;若出家者當成佛。」 … 阿私陀仙人相之,告淨飯王:
是人足下千輻輪相,指合縵網,當自於法中安平立,無能動、無能壞者。
手中德字,縵網莊嚴,當以此手安慰眾生,令無所畏。
如是乃至肉骨髻相,如青珠山頂,青色光明從四邊出。
頭中頂相無能見上,若天、若人無有勝者。
白毫眉間跱,白光踰頗梨。淨眼長廣,其色紺青。
鼻高直好,甚可愛樂。口四十齒,白淨利好。
四牙上白,其光最勝。脣上下等,不大不小,不長不短。
舌薄而大,軟赤紅色,如天蓮華。梵聲深遠,聞者悅樂,聽無厭足。
身色好妙,勝閻浮檀金。大光周身,種種雜色,妙好無比。
如是等三十二相具足,是人不久出家,得一切智成佛。

297

414-421 《大般涅槃經》卷21
「到於天廟令諸天像悉起承迎阿私陀仙抱持占相。既占相已生大悲苦。自傷當終不覩佛興 … 阿私陀仙合掌恭敬。盛年捨欲如棄涕唾。」298

414-426 《佛所行讚》
「時近處園中,  有苦行仙人, 名曰阿私陀,  善解於相法,
 來詣王宮門,  王謂梵天應。 苦行樂正法,  此二相俱現,
 梵行相具足,  時王大歡喜。 即請入宮內,  恭敬設供養,
 將入內宮中,  唯樂見王子。 雖有婇女眾,  如在空閑林,
 安處正法座,  加敬尊奉事, 如安低牒王,  奉事波尸吒。
 時王白仙人:  「我今得大利。
 勞屈大仙人,  辱來攝受我, 諸有所應為,  唯願時教勅。」
 如是勸請已,  仙人大歡喜:「善哉常勝王,  眾德悉皆備。
 愛樂來求者,  惠施崇正法, 仁智殊勝族,  謙恭善隨順。
 宿殖眾妙因,  勝果現於今, 汝當聽我說,  今者來因緣。
 我從日道來,  聞空中天說, 言王生太子,  當成正覺道。
 并見先瑞相,  今故來到此, 欲觀釋迦王,  建立正法幢。」
 王聞仙人說,  決定離疑網, 命持太子出,  以示於仙人。
 仙人觀太子,  足下千輻輪, 手足網縵指,  眉間白毫跱,
 馬藏隱密相,  容色炎光明, 見生未曾想,  流淚長歎息。
 王見仙人泣,  念子心戰慄, 氣結盈心胸,  驚悸不自安。
 不覺從坐起,  稽首仙人足, 而白仙人言:  「此子生奇特,
 容貌極端嚴,  天人殆不異, 汝言人中上,  何故生憂悲?
 將非短壽子,  生我憂悲乎? 久渴得甘露,  而反復失耶?
 將非失財寶,  喪家亡國乎? 若有勝子存,  國嗣有所寄,
 我死時心悅,  安樂生他世, 猶如人兩目,  一眠而一覺。
 莫如秋霜花,  雖敷而無實, 人於親族中,  愛深無過子。
 宜時為記說,  令我得蘇息。」
 仙人知父王,  心懷大憂懼, 即告言大王:  「王今勿恐怖,
 前已語大王,  慎勿自生疑, 今相猶如前,  不應懷異想;
 自惟我年暮,  悲慨泣歎耳。 今我臨終時,  此子應世生,
 為盡生故生,  斯人難得遇。 當捨聖王位,  不著五欲境,
 精勤修苦行,  開覺得真實。 常為諸群生,  滅除癡冥障,
 於世永熾燃,  智慧日光明。 眾生沒苦海,  眾病為聚沫,
 衰老為巨浪,  死為海洪濤。 乘輕智慧舟,  渡此眾流難,
 智慧泝流水,  淨戒為傍岸。 三昧清涼池,  正受眾奇鳥,
 如此甚深廣,  正法之大河。 渴愛諸群生,  飲之以蘇息,
 染著五欲境,  眾苦所驅迫, 迷生死曠野,  莫知所歸趣;
 菩薩出世間,  為通解脫道。 世間貪欲火,  境界薪熾然;
 興發大悲雲,  法雨雨令滅。 癡闇門重扇,  貪欲為關鑰,
 閉塞諸群生,  出要解脫門; 金剛智慧鑷,  拔恩愛逆鑽。
 愚癡網自纏,  窮苦無所依; 法王出世間,  能解眾生縛。
 王莫以此子,  自生憂悲患, 當憂彼眾生,  著欲違正法。
 我今老死壞,  遠離聖功德, 雖得諸禪定,  而不獲其利。
 於此菩薩所,  竟不聞正法, 身壞命終後,  必生三難天。」
 王及諸眷屬,  聞彼仙人說, 知其自憂歎,  恐怖悉以除。」299

424-452 《大般涅槃經》
「至於天廟令諸天像悉起承迎。阿私陀仙抱持占相。既占相已生大悲苦。自傷當終不覩佛興 … 阿私陀仙合掌恭敬。盛年捨欲如棄涕唾。

300

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「彼婆羅門又白王言:『有一梵仙名阿私陀,具足五通,在於香山,彼能為王斷諸疑惑。』諸婆羅門說此語已,辭別而去。爾時白淨王心自思惟:『阿私陀仙人,居在香山,途逕嶮絕,非人所到,當以何方請來至此。』王可作此心念之時,阿私陀仙人遙知王意;又復先見諸奇瑞相,深解菩薩為破生死故現受生;以神通力,騰虛而來,到王宮門。時守門者入白王言:『阿私陀仙人,乘虛空來,今在門外。』王聞歡喜,即勅令前,王至門上自奉迎之;既見仙人,恭敬禮拜,而即問言:『尊者既來,住門不進,為守門者不聽前耶?』仙人答言:『無見止者,既來相詣,宜須先白。』王便隨從,入於後宮,敬請令坐,而問訊言:『尊者!四大常安和不?』仙人答言:『蒙大王恩,幸得安樂。』時白淨王白仙人言:『尊者!今日能來下降,我等種族,方大熾盛,從今已去,日就吉祥,為是經過故來此耶?』仙人答言:『我在香山,見大光明諸奇特相,又知大王心之所念,以是因緣故來到此;我以神力,乘虛而來,聞上諸天說:「王太子必當得成一切種智,度脫天人;又王太子,從右脇生,墮於七寶蓮花之上而行七步,舉其右手而師子吼:『我於天人之中,最尊最勝;無量生死於今盡矣,此生利益一切天人。』」又復諸天圍繞恭敬,聞有如此大奇特事;快哉大王!宜應欣慶。太子今者可得見不?』即將仙人至太子所,王及夫人抱太子出,欲禮仙人;時彼仙人,即止王曰:『此是天人三界中尊,云何而令禮於我耶?』時彼仙人,即起合掌,禮太子足。「王及夫人白仙人言:『唯願尊者為相太子。』仙人言:『善。』即便占相,具見相已;忽然悲泣,不能自勝;王及夫人見彼仙人悲泣流淚,舉身戰怖,生大憂惱,如大波浪動於小船,問仙人言:『我子初生,具諸瑞相,有何不祥而悲泣耶?』爾時仙人歔欷答言:『大王!太子相好具足,無有不祥。』王又問言:『願更為我占視太子,有長壽相不?得轉輪王位王四天下不?我年既暮,欲以國土皆悉付之,當隱山林出家學道,所可志願,唯在於此。尊者為觀,必定果耶?』爾時仙人又答王言:『大王!太子具三十二相,一者、足下安平平如奩底;二者、足下千輻網輪輪相具足;三者、手足相指長勝於餘人;四者、手足柔軟勝餘身分;五者、足跟廣具足滿好;六者、足指合縵網勝於餘人;七者、足趺高平好與跟相稱;八者、伊泥延鹿腨纖好如伊泥延鹿王;九者、平住兩手摩膝;十者、陰藏相如馬王象王;十一者、身縱廣等如尼拘類樹;十二者、一一孔一毛生青色柔軟右旋;十三者、毛上向靡,青色柔軟右旋;十四者、金色相其色微妙勝閻浮檀金;十五者、身光面一丈;十六者、皮薄細滑不受塵垢不停蚊蚋;十七者、七處滿,兩足下兩手中兩肩上項中皆滿,字相分明;十八者、兩腋下滿如摩尼珠;十九者、身如師子;二十者、身廣端直;二十一者、肩圓好;二十二者、口四十齒;二十三者、齒白齊密而根深;二十四者、四牙最白而大;二十五者、方頰車如師子;二十六者、味中得上味,咽中二處津液流出;二十七者、舌大軟薄能覆面至耳髮際;二十八者、梵音深遠如迦陵頻伽聲;二十九者、眼色如金精;三十者、眼睫如牛王;三十一者、眉間白毫相軟白如兜羅綿;三十二者、頂髻肉成。具有如此相好之身,若在家者,年二十九,為轉輪聖王;若出家者,成一切種智,廣濟天人。然王太子,必當學道得成阿耨多羅三藐三菩提,不久當轉清淨法輪,利益天人開世間眼。我今年壽,已百二十,不久命終,生無想天,不覩佛興,不聞經法,故自悲耳。』又問仙人:『尊者向占言,有二種:一當作王;二成正覺;而今云何言決定成一切種智。』時仙人言:『我相之法,若有眾生,具三十二相,或生非處,又不明顯,此人必為轉輪聖王;若三十二相,皆得其處,又復明顯,此人必成一切種智。我觀大王太子諸相,皆得其所,又極明顯,是以決定知成正覺。』仙人為王說此語已,辭別而退。」301

445 《賢愚經》
「相師觀見,記其兩處,在家當作轉輪聖王,出家成佛。

302

472 《付法藏因緣傳》
「至於天廟令諸天像悉起奉迎。阿私陀仙抱持占相。既占相已生大悲苦。自傷當終不覩佛興。」303

502-557 《釋迦譜》
眾釋啟曰。聞雪山有仙梵志。名阿夷頭耆舊多識明曉相法。王大歡喜。嚴駕白象往詣阿夷頭。道人披[*]相太子。見三十二相。軀體金色。頂有肉髻。其髮紺青。眉間白毫。項出日光。目睒紺色。上下俱眴。口四十齒。白齊平方。頰車廣長。舌七合滿。師子膺。身方正。修臂指長。足跟滿安平。指內外握。合縵掌手。足輪千輻理。陰馬藏。鹿腨腸。鉤鎖骨。毛右旋。一一孔一毛生。皮毛細軟。不受塵水。胸有萬字(瑞應本起悉同)。阿夷見此乃增嘆。流涕悲不能言。王惶懼而問。有不祥乎。願告其意。舉手答曰。吉無不利。敢賀大王生此神人。昨天地大動其正為此。我相法中王者生子。有三十二相者。處國當為轉輪聖王七寶自至。若捨國出家為自然佛。傷我年已晚暮。當就後世不覩佛興。故自悲耳。」304

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「王召善相者五百人。於大寶殿令占太子。咸言出家成佛在家輪王。又曰。香山大仙阿私陀者。具五神通能斷王疑。彼仙應念騰空到宮。將太子出欲令致敬。便止之曰。此乃三界中尊。即起合掌禮太子足。便具相已忽然悲泣。便言至年十九為轉輪王。若出家者成一切智然必成佛說法度人。以相明顯皆得其處。我今已年百二十矣。不久生無想天。不覩佛興故自悲耳。」305

516 《經律異相》
「愛道奉。雪山梵志名阿夷頭耆。見太子悲歎流涕。王問其故。答曰。仰慶大王。生此神人。昨天地大動。其正為此。我之相法。太子有三十二相。一體軀金色。二頂有肉髻。三其髮紺青。四眉間白毫。五頂出日光。六目睫紺色。七上下俱眴。八口四十齒。九齒白齊平。十方頰車。十一廣長舌。十二合滿堂。十三師子膺。十四身方正。十五脩臂。十六指長。十七足跟滿。十八安平正。十九內外握。二十合曼掌。二十一手千輻輪理。二十二足千輻輪理。二十三陰馬藏。二十四鹿腨腸。二十五鉤瑣骨。二十六毛右旋。二十七一孔一毛。二十八皮毛細軟。二十九不受塵水。三十胸有萬字(瑞應同少二)。身有此者。若在家。為轉輪聖王。七寶自至。若出家為自然佛。傷我年已晚暮。不覩佛興。是故悲耳。」306

Mother’s death:

Acchariya-abhuta Sutta, Majjhima Nikāya
“Seven days after the birth of the Bodhisatta, his mother died and reappeared in Tusita heaven”307

Buddhacarita
“When ten days were fulfilled after his son's birth … Then the queen with her babe having worshipped the gods for good fortune, occupied a costly palanquin made of elephants' tusks, filled with all kinds of white flowers, and blazing with gems … But the queen Māyā having seen the great glory of her new-born son, like some Rṣi of the gods, could not sustain the joy which it brought; and that she might not die she went to heaven.”308

Lalitavistara
“on the seventh night after the birth of the Bodhisattva, Māyādevī departed this life. After her demise she was born among the Thirty-three Devas … the span of her life was so ordained. The mothers of all former Bodhisattvas also died on the seventh night after their confinement … Because on the delivery of the well-grown Bodhisattva with all his organs complete his mother’s heart splits”309

223-253 《太子瑞應本起經》
「適生七日,其母命終,以懷天人師功福大故,上生忉利,封受自然。菩薩本知母人之德不堪受其禮故,因其將終,而從之生。」

223-253 《惟日雜難經》
「菩薩生已七日其母終者有四因緣。一者用懷菩薩故。天來占視與飯食。二者如生死法[12]當禮母。以菩薩尊故母七日終。三者其母宿命自應爾。四者譬如人有功當封便上天生。」310

280-312 《異出菩薩本起經》
「太子生七日,其母終矣。

285 《慧上菩薩問大善權經》卷1:「何故菩薩生後七日其母便薨?后壽終盡福應昇天,非菩薩咎。前處兜術,觀后摩耶大命將終,餘有十月七日之期,故從兜術神變來下現入后藏,以是推之,非菩薩咎,是為菩薩善權方便。」311

308 《普曜經》
「於時菩薩生七日後,其母命終。於比丘意所趣云何?七日命終,菩薩咎也?莫作是觀。所以者何?本命應然。菩薩察之臨母命終,因來下生,懷菩薩時,諸天供養至見生矣,以服天食不甘世養,本福應然。去來今佛皆亦如是,母七日終。所以者何?菩薩生時,母根身具無有[(/)*]漏,應受忉利天上功祚服食,上忉利天。」

397-439 《優婆夷淨行法門經》
「毘舍佉!菩薩生七日已,其母命終生兜率天,受天快樂,是為八未曾有奇特之法。

312

414-426 《佛所行讚》
「時摩耶夫人,  見其所生子,
 端正如天童,  眾美悉備足,
 過喜不自勝,  命終生天上。

435-443 《過去現在因果經》
「太子既生,始滿七日,其母命終,以懷太子功德大故,上生忉利,封受自然。太子自知,福德威重,無有女人堪受禮者,故因將終,託之而生。」

502-557 《釋迦譜》
「菩薩七日後其母命終。所以者何。應然。菩薩察之。臨母命終因來下生。懷菩薩時諸天供養。已服天食不甘世養。本福應然。去來今佛皆亦如是。母七日終。應受忉利天上功祚。適升彼天。五萬梵天各執寶瓶。二萬魔妻手執寶縷侍菩薩母。瑞應本起云。菩薩本知母人之德不堪受其禮。故因其將終而從之生。長阿含經云。毘婆尸佛降神母胎。專念不亂安樂無畏。身壞命終生忉利天。此是常法。大善權經云。生後七日其母便薨。福應昇天。非菩薩咎。前處兜率觀后摩耶。大命將終。餘有十月七日之期。故神變來下。是菩薩善權方便。」

502-557 《釋迦氏譜》
「太子本起云。菩薩本知母人之德不堪受禮。因其將終而從生焉。普曜云。太子生七日後。母便命終生忉利天。五萬梵天各執寶瓶。二萬魔妻手執寶縷。而共侍衛。三世佛母皆同此相。大權經云。福盡生天非菩薩咎。前處兜率觀后餘命。十月七日故託神來。」

516 《經律異相》
「後七日母便命終。生忉利天。」313
Footnotes

1 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 12.
2 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 102.
3 (CBETA, T03, no. 156, p. 164, b17-c8)
4 (CBETA, T14, no. 461, p. 461, c24-27)
5 (CBETA, T16, no. 695, p. 796, c7-10)
6 (CBETA, T03, no. 186, p. 490, c14-p. 491, a10)
7 (CBETA, T16, no. 696, p. 797, c8-10)
8 (CBETA, T04, no. 192, p. 1, b2-3)
9 (CBETA, T52, no. 2102, p. 1, c3-4)
10 (CBETA, T50, no. 2041, p. 88, b21-24)
11 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 37.
12 Ibid., 42.
13 Ibid., 75–76.
14 (CBETA, T03, no. 186, p. 488, b28)
15 (CBETA, T50, no. 2041, p. 88, c25-27)
16 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 37.
17 (CBETA, T03, no. 185, p. 473, b16-20)
18 (CBETA, T03, no. 188, p. 618, a6-8)
19 (CBETA, T12, no. 345, p. 160, b3-7)
20 (CBETA, T03, no. 158, p. 267, a8-9)
21 (CBETA, T03, no. 189, p. 623, b2-6)
22 (CBETA, T50, no. 2040, p. 14, c5-8)
23 (CBETA, T50, no. 2041, p. 88, b26-c2)
24 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 8–9.
25 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 37.
26 Ibid., 40–42.
27 (CBETA, T03, no. 185, p. 473, b15-16)
28 (CBETA, T03, no. 188, p. 618, a8-9)
29 (CBETA, T03, no. 186, p. 486, a10-17)
30 (CBETA, T03, no. 158, p. 267, a9-10)
31 (CBETA, T25, no. 1509, p. 90, a17-19)
32 (CBETA, T04, no. 192, p. 1, a8-13)
33 (CBETA, T03, no. 189, p. 623, b6-10)
34 (CBETA, T14, no. 462, p. 475, c23-25)
35 (CBETA, T50, no. 2040, p. 4, c17-20)
36 (CBETA, T50, no. 2041, p. 88, c3-11)
37 (CBETA, T53, no. 2121, p. 15, a28-b5)
38 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 74.
39 (CBETA, T03, no. 186, p. 488, b18-26)
40 (CBETA, T04, no. 195, p. 146, b29-c5)
41 (CBETA, T52, no. 2102, p. 1, c5-6)
42 (CBETA, T50, no. 2040, p. 4, c20-29)
43 (CBETA, T50, no. 2041, p. 88, c22-25)
44 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 62–74.
45 (CBETA, T03, no. 186, p. 487, c18-23)
46 (CBETA, T03, no. 189, p. 623, b21-27)
47 (CBETA, T50, no. 2041, p. 88, c12-20)
48 Ñāṇamoli and (Bhikkhu.), The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, 980.
49 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 10.
50 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 94.
51 (CBETA, T12, no. 360, p. 265, c26-27)
52 (CBETA, T12, no. 345, p. 160, b8-12)
53 (CBETA, T10, no. 285, p. 462, a27-28)
54 (CBETA, T04, no. 194, p. 122, b6)
55(CBETA, T14, no. 579, p. 960, c18-20)
56 (CBETA, T25, no. 1509, p. 90, a19-20)
57 (CBETA, T30, no. 1581, p. 899, b8-9)
58 (CBETA, T12, no. 374, p. 388, b24-27) … (CBETA, T12, no. 374, p. 488, a9)
59 (CBETA, T12, no. 376, p. 870, c23-24)
60 (CBETA, T12, no. 375, p. 731, a13-15)
61 (CBETA, T50, no. 2058, p. 299, b9-10)
62 (CBETA, T53, no. 2121, p. 15, b5-6)
63 Ñāṇamoli and (Bhikkhu.), The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, 980.
64 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 102.
65 (CBETA, T03, no. 156, p. 164, b17-c8)
66 (CBETA, T03, no. 158, p. 267, a10-17)
67 (CBETA, T04, no. 194, p. 122, b26-27) … (CBETA, T04, no. 194, p. 122, c1-3)
68 (CBETA, T14, no. 579, p. 960, c20-26)
69 Walshe, The Long Discourses of the Buddha, 248.
70 (CBETA, T30, no. 1581, p. 899, b8)
71 (CBETA, T30, no. 1582, p. 973, b23-24)
72 (CBETA, T53, no. 2121, p. 15, b6-12)
73 Ñāṇamoli and (Bhikkhu.), The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, 981.
74 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 10.
75 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 88.
76 (CBETA, T04, no. 194, p. 122, b11-13)
77 (CBETA, T14, no. 579, p. 960, c26-29)
78 Ñāṇamoli and (Bhikkhu.), The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, 981.
79 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 103.
80 (CBETA, T03, no. 156, p. 164, b20-21)
81 (CBETA, T01, no. 26, p. 470, b1-5)
82 (CBETA, T03, no. 188, p. 618, a9-11)
83 Ñāṇamoli and (Bhikkhu.), The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, 981.
84 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 10.
85 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 107.
86 (CBETA, T04, no. 194, p. 122, b13-15)
87 (CBETA, T14, no. 579, p. 960, c29-p. 961, a13)
88 Ñāṇamoli and (Bhikkhu.), The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, 982.
89 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 10.
90 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 118.
91 (CBETA, T12, no. 345, p. 160, b26-28)
92 (CBETA, T03, no. 158, p. 267, a17-21)
93 (CBETA, T14, no. 579, p. 961, a14-17)
94 (CBETA, T25, no. 1509, p. 90, a20-21)
95 (CBETA, T12, no. 374, p. 488, a10-11)
96 (CBETA, T28, no. 1546, p. 381, a11-16)
97 (CBETA, T50, no. 2058, p. 299, b10)
98 (CBETA, T53, no. 2121, p. 15, b12-13)
99 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 118.
100 (CBETA, T53, no. 2121, p. 15, b12-18)
101 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 10.
102 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 120.
103 Ibid.
104 (CBETA, T12, no. 345, p. 160, b29-c6)
105 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 121.
106 (CBETA, T03, no. 186, p. 493, c5-9)
107 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 121.
108 (CBETA, T03, no. 189, p. 625, a17-19)
109 (CBETA, T50, no. 2041, p. 89, a28)
110 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 121–122.
111 Ibid., 122.
112 Ñāṇamoli and (Bhikkhu.), The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, 982.
113 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 10–11.
114 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 123.
115 (CBETA, T12, no. 360, p. 265, c27-28)
116 (CBETA, T12, no. 345, p. 160, c7-12)
117 (CBETA, T50, no. 2042, p. 103, b7-18)
118 (CBETA, T03, no. 158, p. 267, a24)
119 (CBETA, T51, no. 2085, p. 861, a17-b9)
120 Walshe, The Long Discourses of the Buddha, 248.
121 (CBETA, T12, no. 374, p. 388, b27-28)
122 (CBETA, T12, no. 375, p. 628, c2-3)
123 (CBETA, T28, no. 1546, p. 381, a11-16)
124 (CBETA, T04, no. 202, p. 433, a3)
125 (CBETA, T15, no. 620, p. 341, a9-10)
126 (CBETA, T53, no. 2121, p. 15, b18-21)
127 Ñāṇamoli and (Bhikkhu.), The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, 982.
128 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 11.
129 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 123–124.
130 (CBETA, T12, no. 345, p. 160, c17-20)
131 (CBETA, T14, no. 579, p. 961, a20-21)
132 (CBETA, T25, no. 1509, p. 219, c12-13)
133 (CBETA, T12, no. 374, p. 488, a11)
134 (CBETA, T12, no. 375, p. 731, a15-16)
135 (CBETA, T50, no. 2058, p. 299, b10-11)
136 (CBETA, T53, no. 2121, p. 15, b23)
137 Ñāṇamoli and (Bhikkhu.), The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, 982.
138 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 123.
139 (CBETA, T12, no. 345, p. 160, b13-20) - (CBETA, T12, no. 345, p. 160, c21-24)
140 (CBETA, T14, no. 579, p. 961, a24-28)
141 (CBETA, T12, no. 376, p. 870, c24-27)
142 Ñāṇamoli and (Bhikkhu.), The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, 982.
143 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 11.
144 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 124.
145 (CBETA, T14, no. 579, p. 961, a28-b1)
146 (CBETA, T25, no. 1509, p. 219, c13-14) … (CBETA, T25, no. 1509, p. 308, a11-13)
147 (CBETA, T12, no. 374, p. 488, a11-12)
148 (CBETA, T12, no. 375, p. 731, a16-17)
149 (CBETA, T50, no. 2058, p. 299, b11-12)
150 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 12.
151 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 123–124.
152 (CBETA, T30, no. 1582, p. 973, b24-25)
153 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 12.
154 (CBETA, T04, no. 202, p. 418, c26-27)
155 Ñāṇamoli and (Bhikkhu.), The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, 983.
156 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 12.
157 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 124–125.
158 (CBETA, T03, no. 156, p. 164, b21-22)
159 (CBETA, T17, no. 760, p. 607, b26-27)
160 (CBETA, T04, no. 198, p. 187, a17-19)
161 (CBETA, T12, no. 360, p. 265, c27-p. 266, a1)
162 (CBETA, T12, no. 381, p. 974, a17)
163 (CBETA, T14, no. 461, p. 461, c28-p. 462, a1)
164 (CBETA, T12, no. 345, p. 160, c25-p. 161, a10)
165 (CBETA, T10, no. 285, p. 462, a29-b1)
166 (CBETA, T50, no. 2042, p. 103, a28-29)
167 (CBETA, T03, no. 158, p. 267, b5-6)
168 (CBETA, T12, no. 385, p. 1058, c13-14)
169 (CBETA, T16, no. 656, p. 7, b9-11)
170 (CBETA, T28, no. 1547, p. 440, b25-26)
171 (CBETA, T04, no. 194, p. 122, c3-6)
172 (CBETA, T14, no. 579, p. 961, b1-5) … (CBETA, T14, no. 579, p. 961, c10-11)
173 (CBETA, T25, no. 1509, p. 58, a11-15) … (CBETA, T25, no. 1509, p. 59, a4-5) … (CBETA, T25, no. 1509, p. 219, c14-16) … (CBETA, T25, no. 1509, p. 308, a13-15) … (CBETA, T25, no. 1509, p. 341, c8-10)
174 (CBETA, T15, no. 614, p. 276, c25-26)
175 (CBETA, T15, no. 642, p. 640, b14-17)
176 (CBETA, T12, no. 382, p. 990, b19-24)
177 (CBETA, T26, no. 1521, p. 72, b21-23)
178 (CBETA, T51, no. 2085, p. 861, a17-b9)
179 (CBETA, T30, no. 1581, p. 899, b9-10)
180 (CBETA, T12, no. 374, p. 388, b28-c12) … (CBETA, T12, no. 374, p. 452, a9-10) … (CBETA, T12, no. 374, p. 488, a12-14) … (CBETA, T12, no. 374, p. 528, a28-29) … (CBETA, T12, no. 374, p. 600, c18)
181 (CBETA, T13, no. 397, p. 283, b14-18)
182 (CBETA, T12, no. 376, p. 870, c27-p. 871, a11)
183 (CBETA, T09, no. 278, p. 533, a24-29) … (CBETA, T09, no. 278, p. 659, c18-21)
184 (CBETA, T12, no. 375, p. 628, c3-16) … (CBETA, T12, no. 35, p. 694, a10-11) … (CBETA, T12, no. 375, p. 731, a18-19) … (CBETA, T12, no. 375, p. 773, a2-3)
185 (CBETA, T30, no. 1582, p. 973, b25-26)
186 (CBETA, T14, no. 462, p. 475, c26-27)
187 (CBETA, T02, no. 99, p. 166, b25-c3) … (CBETA, T02, no. 99, p. 166, c6-17)
188 (CBETA, T28, no. 1546, p. 381, a16)
189 (CBETA, T04, no. 202, p. 418, c25-26) … (CBETA, T04, no. 202, p. 433, a3-4)
190 (CBETA, T15, no. 620, p. 341, a11)
191 (CBETA, T50, no. 2058, p. 299, b13)
192 (CBETA, T24, no. 1462, p. 699, b16-26)
193 (CBETA, T50, no. 2043, p. 136, c12-17) … (CBETA, T50, no. 2043, p. 136, c22-p. 137, a11)
194 Li, The Biographical Scripture of King Aśoka, 27–28.
195 (CBETA, T53, no. 2121, p. 15, b21-23)
196 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 12.
197 (CBETA, T04, no. 198, p. 187, a21)
198 (CBETA, T14, no. 461, p. 462, a1)
199 (CBETA, T12, no. 345, p. 161, a18-21)
200 (CBETA, T10, no. 285, p. 462, b1)
201 (CBETA, T03, no. 158, p. 267, b11-12)
202 (CBETA, T28, no. 1547, p. 440, b26)
203 (CBETA, T51, no. 2085, p. 861, a17-b9)
204 (CBETA, T12, no. 374, p. 528, b2-3)
205 (CBETA, T12, no. 375, p. 773, a5-6)
206 (CBETA, T14, no. 462, p. 475, c27-28)
207 (CBETA, T53, no. 2121, p. 15, b23-24)
208 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 12.
209 Ibid.
210 (CBETA, T12, no. 375, p. 731, a17-18)
211 (CBETA, T14, no. 462, p. 475, c25-26)
212 (CBETA, T04, no. 202, p. 418, c24-25) … (CBETA, T04, no. 202, p. 433, a5)
213 (CBETA, T50, no. 2058, p. 299, b12-13)
214 (CBETA, T53, no. 2121, p. 15, b23)
215 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 13.
216 (CBETA, T03, no. 156, p. 164, b22-24)
217 (CBETA, T12, no. 360, p. 266, a1)
218 (CBETA, T14, no. 461, p. 461, c27)
219 (CBETA, T10, no. 285, p. 462, b1)
220 (CBETA, T03, no. 158, p. 267, b3-5)
221 (CBETA, T30, no. 1581, p. 899, b10-12)
222 (CBETA, T12, no. 374, p. 528, b3)
223 (CBETA, T13, no. 397, p. 283, b16-18)
224 (CBETA, T09, no. 278, p. 533, a20-21)
225 (CBETA, T12, no. 375, p. 773, a3-4) … (CBETA, T12, no. 375, p. 773, a6-7)
226 (CBETA, T30, no. 1582, p. 973, b26-28)
227 (CBETA, T02, no. 99, p. 166, c26-28)
228 Ñāṇamoli and (Bhikkhu.), The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, 983.
229 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 11.
230 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 126.
231 (CBETA, T04, no. 198, p. 187, a17-18)
232 (CBETA, T12, no. 360, p. 265, c28-29)
233 (CBETA, T14, no. 461, p. 462, a2-4)
234 (CBETA, T03, no. 158, p. 267, a24-25)
235 (CBETA, T01, no. 26, p. 470, b11-15)
236 (CBETA, T14, no. 579, p. 961, c17-18)
237 (CBETA, T25, no. 1509, p. 75, b7-8) … (CBETA, T25, no. 1509, p. 219, c11-12) … (CBETA, T25, no. 1509, p. 308, a9-11)
238 (CBETA, T12, no. 374, p. 452, a9-10) … (CBETA, T12, no. 374, p. 528, b2)
239 (CBETA, T13, no. 397, p. 283, b15-16)
240 (CBETA, T12, no. 375, p. 694, a11-12) … (CBETA, T12, no. 375, p. 773, a5)
241 (CBETA, T03, no. 189, p. 625, b18)
242 (CBETA, T14, no. 462, p. 475, c28-29)
243 (CBETA, T02, no. 99, p. 166, c18-21)
244 (CBETA, T04, no. 202, p. 433, a5)
245 (CBETA, T50, no. 2043, p. 137, a12-17)
246 Li, The Biographical Scripture of King Aśoka, 29.
247 Ñāṇamoli and (Bhikkhu.), The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, 983.
248 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 13.
249 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 125.
250 (CBETA, T04, no. 198, p. 187, a17)
251 (CBETA, T12, no. 360, p. 265, c29)
252 (CBETA, T14, no. 461, p. 461, c27)
253 (CBETA, T03, no. 158, p. 267, a20-23)
254 (CBETA, T12, no. 385, p. 1058, c9-13)
255 (CBETA, T01, no. 26, p. 470, b5-6)
256 (CBETA, T14, no. 579, p. 961, b5-7) … (CBETA, T14, no. 579, p. 961, c14-16)
257 (CBETA, T25, no. 1509, p. 75, b5-6)
258 Walshe, The Long Discourses of the Buddha, 248.
259 (CBETA, T12, no. 374, p. 528, a29-b2)
260 (CBETA, T13, no. 397, p. 283, b18-20)
261 (CBETA, T12, no. 375, p. 773, a4-5)
262 (CBETA, T14, no. 462, p. 475, c25)
263 (CBETA, T15, no. 620, p. 341, a11)
264 (CBETA, T50, no. 2043, p. 137, a12-17)
265 Li, The Biographical Scripture of King Aśoka, 29.
266 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 13.
267 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 125.
268 (CBETA, T04, no. 198, p. 187, a19-20)
269 (CBETA, T14, no. 579, p. 961, b18-19)
270 (CBETA, T04, no. 202, p. 418, c23-24) … (CBETA, T04, no. 202, p. 433, a5)
271 (CBETA, T15, no. 620, p. 341, a12)
272 (CBETA, T50, no. 2043, p. 137, a12-17)
273 Li, The Biographical Scripture of King Aśoka, 29.
274 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 13–14.
275 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 125–126.
276 (CBETA, T25, no. 1509, p. 308, a15-17)
277 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 13.
278 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 126.
279 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 14.
280 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 126, 134–135.
281 (CBETA, T04, no. 198, p. 187, a20)
282 (CBETA, T14, no. 461, p. 462, a1-2)
283 (CBETA, T01, no. 26, p. 470, c10-13)
284 (CBETA, T14, no. 579, p. 961, c18-20)
285 (CBETA, T04, no. 192, p. 1, c15-16)
286 (CBETA, T14, no. 462, p. 475, c28)
287 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 20–21.
288 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 136–137.
289 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 15–20.
290 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 138–148.
291 (CBETA, T03, no. 184, p. 464, a28-p. 465, a11)
292 (CBETA, T03, no. 185, p. 474, a3-25)
293 (CBETA, T14, no. 461, p. 462, a4-6)
294 (CBETA, T03, no. 188, p. 618, a25-b6)
295 (CBETA, T03, no. 186, p. 495, b9-p. 496, b6)
296 (CBETA, T28, no. 1547, p. 440, b26-29)
297 (CBETA, T25, no. 1509, p. 90, a22-27) … (CBETA, T25, no. 1509, p. 219, c16-29)
298 (CBETA, T12, no. 374, p. 488, a14-16) … (CBETA, T12, no. 374, p. 528, b3-4)
299 (CBETA, T04, no. 192, p. 2, c2-p. 3, b23)
300 (CBETA, T12, no. 375, p. 731, a19-21) … (CBETA, T12, no. 375, p. 773, a7-8)
301 (CBETA, T03, no. 189, p. 626, c12-p. 627, c3)
302 (CBETA, T04, no. 202, p. 433, a6-7)
303 (CBETA, T50, no. 2058, p. 299, b14-16)
304 (CBETA, T50, no. 2040, p. 5, c17-p. 6, a4)
305 (CBETA, T50, no. 2041, p. 90, a1-9)
306 (CBETA, T53, no. 2121, p. 15, b28-c15)
307 Ñāṇamoli and (Bhikkhu.), The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, 982.
308 “The Buddha-Carita or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa,” 20, 24.
309 Mitra, The Lalitavistara, 136.
310 (CBETA, T17, no. 760, p. 607, c15-19)
311 (CBETA, T12, no. 345, p. 161, a27-b2)
312 (CBETA, T14, no. 579, p. 961, a13-14)
313 (CBETA, T53, no. 2121, p. 15, b25-26)